Things You Should Know About 3D Fiber Laser Cutting

What is laser?

Laser is a kind of light.

Like other light-emitting bodies in nature, it is produced by the transition of atoms (molecules or ions) and is caused by spontaneous emission.

Although laser is light, it is significantly different from ordinary light in that laser only depends on spontaneous emission in a very short time at first, and the subsequent process is completely determined by laser radiation.

Therefore, laser has very pure color, almost no divergence directivity, and extremely high luminous intensity.

Things You Should Know About 3D Fiber Laser Cutting 1

Characteristics of 3D fiber laser cutting robot

1. Main characteristics of fiber laser

(1) The electric optical conversion efficiency of fiber laser is high, and the conversion efficiency is more than 25%.

The low-power fiber laser does not need to be equipped with a water cooler, and the use of air cooling can greatly save the power consumption during operation, save the operation cost, and achieve the highest production efficiency.

(2) When the laser is running, it only needs electric energy, does not need to generate additional gas of the laser, and has the lowest operation and maintenance costs.

(3) The fiber laser adopts semiconductor modular and redundant design.

There is no optical lens in the resonant cavity, and it does not need start-up time.

It has the advantages of no adjustment, no maintenance and high stability, and reduces the cost of accessories and maintenance time, which is unmatched by traditional lasers.

(4) The output wavelength of the fiber laser is 1.06 μm, which is 1 / 10 of the wavelength of CO2.

It has high precision, good output beam quality and high power density, which is very conducive to the absorption of metal materials.

It has excellent cutting and welding capabilities, so as to minimize the processing cost.

(5) The optical route of the whole machine is optical fiber transmission, which does not need complex light guide systems such as reflectors.

The optical path is simple, the structure is stable, and the external optical path is maintenance free.

(6) The cutting head contains protective lenses, so that the consumption of valuable consumables such as reflector and focusing lens is very small.

(7) Light is exported through optical fiber, which makes the design of mechanical system very simple and easy to integrate with robot or multi-dimensional workbench.

(8) After adding the shutter, the laser can be divided into multiple machines with one device. Through optical fiber splitting, it can be divided into multiple channels and work at the same time. It is easy to expand the function, and the upgrade is convenient and simple.

(9) Fiber laser is small in size, light in weight, movable in working position and small in floor area.

2. The biggest feature of 3D laser cutting is high flexibility

Three dimensional laser cutting is especially suitable for cutting small quantities of three-dimensional sheet metal materials.

Its high flexibility is mainly manifested in two aspects:

(1) With strong adaptability to materials, laser cutting machine can basically cut any plate through numerical control program.

(2) The processing path is controlled by the program.

If the processing object changes, it is only necessary to modify the program, which is particularly evident in the trimming and hole cutting of parts.

Because the trimming die and punching die are unable to process other different parts, and the cost of the die is high, the current three-dimensional laser cutting has the trend to replace the trimming die and punching die.

Generally speaking, the fixture design and use of three-dimensional machining are relatively complex, but laser processing does not add machining force to the processed plate, which makes the fixture manufacturing very simple.

In addition, if a laser device is equipped with different hardware and software, it can achieve a variety of functions.

3. Advantages and disadvantages of robot + fiber laser combination

(1) Replacing the five axis machine tool with an industrial robot, both of which can describe the spatial trajectory and realize three-dimensional cutting.

The repeated positioning accuracy of the industrial robot is slightly lower than that of the five axis machine tool, about ± 100 μm, but this can fully meet the accuracy requirements of the automotive sheet metal panel and chassis parts industry.

The use of industrial robots greatly reduces the cost of the system, reduces the power consumption system costs and system operation and maintenance costs, and reduces the floor area of the system.

(2) Replace CO2 with fiber laser:

Laser fiber laser technology is a laser technology with rapid development in recent years. Compared with traditional lasers, it has better cutting quality, lower system cost, longer service life, lower maintenance and lower power consumption.

The key is that the laser of the fiber laser can be transmitted through the fiber, which is convenient to connect with the industrial robot and realize flexible processing.

(3) The combination of industrial robot and fiber laser is used for processing, and the processes such as trimming and cleaning are completed at one time.

The incision is neat without subsequent process reprocessing, which greatly shortens the process flow, reduces the input of labor cost and mold cost, and also improves the product grade and added value.

The off-line programming software of the company is selected to directly generate the cutting track through digital simulation, which abandons the complicated manual teaching, and is more suitable for some personalized cutting needs such as small batch and multi batch maintenance market, new product trial production and non-standard customization.

Moreover, by investing in highly flexible and efficient laser cutting equipment to replace expensive stamping equipment and cutting equipment, we can change products more flexibly and grasp the market.

(4) The perfect integration of cutting-edge fiber laser technology and digital control technology represents the most advanced level of laser cutting;

The professional laser cutting machine control system and computer operation can ensure the cutting quality, make the cutting work more convenient and the operation simpler;

Equipped with intelligent manipulator, it can realize three-dimensional cutting, with convenient operation and high degree of intelligence, so as to ensure the high speed, high precision and high reliability of the equipment;

The laser cutting head is equipped with imported laser cutting head, which is sensitive and accurate, and can effectively cooperate with the manipulator to avoid the collision between the cutting head and the processed plate, and can ensure the cutting focus position and the stability of cutting quality;

The laser cutting head can withstand 1.0MPa gas pressure, and the high-pressure gas circuit equipment improves the cutting ability of stainless steel and other difficult cutting materials.

(5) The only defect of the system can only process metal workpiece, not non-metal workpiece.

Introduction of 3D fiber laser cutting machine technology

The 3D fiber laser cutting machine is an advanced laser cutting equipment, which is composed of a special fiber laser cutting head, a high-precision capacitive tracking system, a fiber laser and an industrial robot system to perform multi angle and multi-directional flexible cutting of metal plates with different thicknesses.

Three dimensional laser cutting uses the flexible and fast action performance of industrial robots. According to the size of the workpiece cut and processed by users, you can choose to install the robot in front or in reverse to teach programming or offline programming for different products and different tracks.

The sixth axis of the robot is loaded with fiber laser cutting head to cut irregular workpiece in three dimensions;

The optical fiber laser cutting head is equipped with a follow-up device and an optical path transmission device.

The optical fiber is used to transmit the laser to the cutting head, and then the focusing system is used to focus.

For plates of different thickness, multiple sets of focusing systems are developed to cut a variety of three-dimensional metal plates in multiple directions to meet the needs of customers.

According to the thickness of the metal plate, the power of the selected fiber laser is also different.

The power of the fiber laser for three-dimensional cutting is generally divided into 200W, 300W, 400W, 500W, 1000W and other specifications;

The lasers with different power are equipped with cooling systems with different refrigerating capacity to ensure the normal operation of the lasers.

At the same time, according to the working radius of the manipulator and the size of the workpiece processed by the customer, the appropriate length of operating optical fiber transmission laser should be selected to meet the cutting requirements of the customer.

The auxiliary gas used in the three-dimensional fiber laser cutting machine is 99.99% oxygen, which is very helpful to the cutting accuracy, speed and section effect.

The factors that affect the cutting quality of three-dimensional fiber laser cutting machine are generally as follows:

① Laser power.

② The size and purity of the auxiliary air pressure.

③ The focal length of the cutting head.

④ Thickness of processed workpiece.

⑤ The teaching trajectory of the robot or the digital analog positioning accuracy of offline programming.

⑥ The path repetition accuracy, repetition positioning accuracy and speed of the robot.

Six technical advantages of 3D cutting system

(1) The cutting speed is fast, twice that of similar products.

The typical parameters are 200W laser for 0.8mm thick carbon steel, and the linear cutting speed can reach 10m / raino.

(2) The cutting accuracy is high, and the repeated positioning accuracy of the system is as high as ± 100 μm, which can fully meet the needs of the automotive sheet metal panel industry.

(3) It can cut small circles with a diameter as small as 2mm.

The cutting effect is smooth and beautiful, and the invisible deformation and burr can be observed visually.

The cutting time of a single small circle can be controlled within 2S.

(4) With a manipulator with an arm length of 2m, in addition to the hemispherical three-dimensional processing area with a diameter of 3m, it can also achieve 3m × 2-D plane cutting of 1.5m.

Realize the combination of two and three-dimensional cutting, cut the material on the standard blank, combined with the two-dimensional software developed by the company for free distribution, which has the functions of nesting and path optimization, and is really suitable for the initial investment in the sheet metal industry.

(5) According to the actual needs, offline programming software is selected, which can read the digital analog of UG, SOLIDWORK and other three-dimensional mapping software export format, and directly generate the cutting track after modification, instead of manual teaching, which is simple and easy to use.

(6) Industrial control concept, modular design, high protection level of the whole system, high protection level of the manipulator, high system integration, few faults, anti shock vibration, anti dust, no optical adjustment or maintenance, really suitable for the field of industrial processing.

Application of 3D fiber laser cutting robot

Application of 3D fiber laser cutting robot

1. Application of 3D laser cutting industry

Three dimensional laser cutting is widely used in sheet metal processing, metal processing, advertising production, kitchenware, cars, lamps, saw blades, elevator, metal crafts, textile machinery, grain machinery, glasses production, aerospace, medical devices, instruments and meters and other industries.

Especially in the sheet metal processing industry, it has replaced the traditional processing methods and is deeply favored by industry users.

2. Machinable materials

Cutting of stainless steel, carbon steel, alloy steel, silicon steel, spring steel, aluminum, aluminum alloy, galvanized plate, aluminized zinc plate, pickled plate, copper, silver, gold, titanium and other metal plates and pipes.

3. Three dimensional laser cutting machine processing high-strength steel

Trimming is another challenge for high strength steel.

Three dimensional laser cutting machine is suitable for cutting edges of formed sheet metal parts, especially for steel plates with strength up to 1500MPa, because there is no other processing method to replace it.

Because when processing these high hardness materials, the service life of stamping dies or cutters of traditional equipment will be greatly shortened, and laser cutting does not need to consider these problems.

It also has the advantages of short installation time, flexible replacement of products or sample production.

4. Three dimensional laser cutting machine is applied to the cutting of automobile side wall

(1) The side wall is hot formed from high-strength steel, which has high hardness and bears great stress.

The B-side wall made of high-strength steel increases the impact resistance and improves the safety of the car.

This is also the reason why automobile manufacturers are willing to use high-strength steel despite its high cost.

(2) It is used for laser drilling equipment of automobile bumper. Automobile bumper is a special-shaped part.

The traditional stamping method is very complex, and the parts are prone to deformation and stress.

Using laser cutting method, there is no need for complex fixture system, no processing stress, no deformation, no burr, no collapse, which is more suitable for later processing and installation.

It can be seen that in the field of automobile manufacturing, the use of laser technology makes automobile manufacturing process with high precision, good quality, easy to realize automation, flexibility and intelligence;

More importantly, it can improve the safety quality of cars, clean production, reduce consumption and pollution, reduce costs and ultimately give concessions to ordinary consumers. Science and technology make life beautiful, and laser makes cars beautiful.

Development trend of 3D laser processing technology

1. High precision, high speed and high flexibility

Although limited by the “thermal (optical) processing” method, the accuracy of laser cutting still lags behind other NC processing methods such as NC milling, but this does not affect its application.

Its accuracy can be improved by improving equipment performance and selecting appropriate process parameters.

In terms of speed, although the laser cutting speed can reach several meters or even more than ten meters per minute, it is not as good as metal stamping dies in mass production.

In order to improve the production efficiency, we must improve the machining speed of the machine tool.

However, under the actual normal speed movement, if the speed is too high, the acceleration is bound to be very large when realizing acceleration, deceleration and changing the mode of motion, which may produce a large inertial force.

Therefore, in order to obtain high speed and reduce the inertial force, we must try to reduce the mass of the moving part.

2. Low cost

The first reason why laser equipment is expensive is that the laser is expensive.

At present, the optical mode of domestic self-developed lasers is difficult to reach the basic mode, and they are not competent for three-dimensional cutting;

Secondly, we have not mastered the core technology of manufacturing 3D laser equipment (such as cutting head);

Only by reducing the cost of equipment and mastering its core technology can this technology be widely used in the fields of automobile, aerospace and aerospace manufacturing.

3. Intellectualization

In three-dimensional laser cutting, we should not only consider the position and orientation of the laser optical axis, defocusing amount and other factors, but also sometimes there will be interference or collision between the workpiece or fixture and the laser head.

At present, some software can make the machine tool realize semi-automatic or full-automatic interference avoidance (such as tebis’ five axis laser cutting module).

For the input of cutting trajectory, teaching is a more mature method, which has the disadvantages of time-consuming, laborious and low accuracy.

Before processing, 3D parts often have specific shapes and irregularities.

In fact, due to the influence of gravity and other factors, their shapes may be different from the original design.

Therefore, it will take time for laser processing of 3D parts to realize CAD to cam directly.

4. High integration

Because a single laser equipment is generally expensive, the diversification of functions has always been a direction of the development of laser equipment.

At present, there are no mature laser processing methods such as integrated cutting, welding, surface treatment and so on in general three-dimensional laser equipment.

Although some equipment can cut, weld or punch holes, it will focus on one of the processing methods and weaken other functions.

As various processing methods have different requirements for equipment, their supporting facilities are very different.

For factories, they are basically dedicated to special machines.

“High integration” is a relative concept.

It is impossible to integrate too many processing methods on one equipment.

The devices equipped with each processing method are easy to interfere with each other when integrated.

Moreover, these devices are more expensive after integration because of their strong specificity.

5. Theoretical research

Due to the complexity of laser cutting, there is no relatively complete three-dimensional cutting model at present.

For laser processing, it is essential to establish the database of laser cutting process parameters and expert system.

Conclusion

At present, most of the three-dimensional laser cutting equipment in China are imported from abroad at a high price, and there is also a certain gap in theoretical research, mainly focusing on the realization of the spatial trajectory of three-dimensional parts and the cutting process of three-dimensional parts.

There is no in-depth study on the interaction between laser, material and gas in the laser cutting process of three-dimensional parts, that is, the mechanism of three-dimensional laser cutting.

There is still a big gap between domestic laser 3D cutting technology and foreign advanced technology, which is mainly reflected in the development of equipment and the lack of high-power lasers with high beam quality.

Therefore, there are still many places for this technology to continue in-depth research and strengthen development.

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