01. The working mechanism of 3D laser cutting
Laser cutting is the use of high power density laser beam scanning over the surface of the material, within a very short period of time, the material will be heated to thousands of thousands of degrees Celsius, so that the material melts or gasification, and then high-pressure gas will melt or gasification of material from the cut away, to achieve the purpose of cutting material.
Compared to two-dimensional laser cutting, three-dimensional laser cutting needs to constantly adjust the laser cutting head posture to ensure that the laser cutting head is always perpendicular to the workpiece surface, so as to obtain excellent cutting quality.
In actual production, three-dimensional laser cutting programming needs to first three-dimensional modeling of the part, and then import three-dimensional programming system raw path.
It also needs to be adjusted manually according to the characteristics of the part and tooling features to avoid the cutting head collision and it has a complex operation and high workload.
Since the cutting head of the 3D laser cutting machine is equipped with a capacitive sensor, it can automatically adapt to the shape of the part and always keep a certain distance from the part for cutting.
Therefore, when the surface of the part does not change drastically, only the 2D programming system of the 3D laser cutting machine can meet the production needs.
02. Applications of 3D laser cutting
Three-dimensional laser cutting is widely used in sheet metal processing, metal processing, advertising production, kitchenware, automobiles, lamps and lanterns, saw blades, elevators, metal crafts, textile machinery, food machinery, glasses production, aerospace, medical equipment, instruments and meters and other industries.
Especially in the sheet metal processing industry, it has replaced the traditional processing methods, which is favored by industry users.
Processable material: stainless steel, carbon steel, alloy steel, silicon steel, spring steel, aluminum, aluminum alloy, galvanized plate, aluminized zinc plate, pickled plate, copper, silver, gold, titanium and other metal plate and pipe cutting.
Applications in the manufacture of aluminum alloy motorcycles:
Three-dimensional laser cutting is mainly applied to the cutting nesting of the driver’s cab skin of aluminum alloy trains.
The driver’s compartment cover is a thin sheet of aluminum alloy with a curved surface structure, which is especially suitable for cutting by 3D laser.
After forming, 3D laser cutting is used for nesting.
Compared with the band sawing machines for scribing and sawing, the production efficiency and cutting accuracy of 3D laser cutting are significantly higher.
Applications in the manufacture of stainless steel subways:
Three-dimensional laser cutting is mainly used in the stainless steel subway doors on the beam, end door column, the inner layer of the tendon plate and other eyelets and notches processing, blind window tendon nesting.
Part of the die extrusion parts, due to the high cost of design and manufacture of the drop die, long manufacturing cycle, poor quality drop material, etc., need to choose three-dimensional laser nesting and eyelet processing.
03. Advantages of 3D laser cutting
Proven by production practice, three-dimensional laser cutting has the following advantages:
① High flexibility, which can adapt to the cutting process of different shapes of workpieces.
② High precision, which can meet the manufacturing accuracy of aluminum alloy trainsets, stainless steel subway and other products.
③ High economic efficiency can replace the traditional manufacturing process of trimming die and punching die.
With simple process steps, short manufacturing cycle, fast cutting speed, small slit width and high-quality processing, can greatly reduce costs, shorten the R & D cycle of new models, which has good economic value and application prospects.
04. 3D laser cutting trends
- With the move to higher power lasers and the use of high-performance CNC and servo systems, high processing speeds can be achieved with high power laser cutting while reducing the heat-affected zone and thermal distortion.
The thickness of the material that can be cut is further increased.
- According to the influence of the laser cutting process parameters, the process is improved.
Laser cutting will be highly automated and intelligent.
CAD/CAPP/CAM and artificial intelligence are applied to laser cutting to develop highly automated multifunctional laser processing systems.
- The development of multifunctional laser processing centers, which integrate quality feedback after each process such as laser cutting, laser welding and heat treatment etc., will give full play to the overall advantages of laser processing.
With the development of the Internet and WEB technology, a WEB-based network database was established.
The use of fuzzy reasoning mechanisms and artificial neural networks is to automatically determine laser cutting process parameters and the ability to remotely access and control the laser cutting process has become an inevitable trend.
- Three-dimensional high-precision large CNC laser cutting machines and their cutting process technology
In order to meet the needs of the automotive and aerospace industries for three-dimensional workpiece cutting, three-dimensional laser cutting machines are developing in the direction of high efficiency, high precision, multi-functionality and high adaptability.