Cutting Dust Removal of Laser Pipe Cutting Machine: Analysis of Influencing Factors

In recent years, with the rapid development of the economy, laser cutting has been applied more and more in the industrial industry.

In addition to traditional laser cutting machines, laser pipe cutting machines also occupy an extremely important position.

Especially with the continuous development of engineering machinery, transportation, petrochemical, agricultural machinery and other industries, more and more users gradually realize that pipe parts will play a huge role in future economic construction.

The process of laser pipe cutting will produce a lot of dust, which will be harmful to the environment and personnel, and will also have a great impact on the clamping accuracy, processing efficiency and processing accuracy of the laser pipe cutting machine, which requires us to do a good job of dust removal of the laser pipe cutting machine.

Laser pipe cutting machine is mainly a laser cutting equipment used to process various pipe fittings and profiles.

It is used to cut pipe fittings or profiles by clamping them with chucks.

When cutting pipes, cutting dust will constantly appear from both ends of the pipe to be cut. When cutting profiles, a large amount of dust will be generated at the cutting head.

Generally speaking, the manufacturer of the laser pipe cutting machine will add suction and dedusting pipes at both ends of the pipe to be cut to suck out the cut dust through the continuous operation of the high-power suction fan or deduster, which can not only ensure the cutting efficiency, but also control the production cost, and can simply and quickly improve the cutting dedusting effect.

There are many factors that affect the dedusting effect of laser pipe cutting machine.

This article analyzes the inherent characteristics of the pipe to be cut, the selection of chuck and the selection of auxiliary gas based on my own practical experience.

Influence of the inherent characteristics of the pipe to be cut on the cutting dedusting effect

Generally speaking, the amount of dust from cutting ordinary carbon steel pipes is more than that from stainless steel and other materials.

This is because ordinary carbon steel is vulnerable to environmental impact, easy to rust and corrosion in a very short period of time, and a large amount of dust will be generated during cutting.

In addition, laser pipe cutting machine cuts by illuminating the cutting light spot on the surface of the pipe to be cut, and its surface temperature will reach the melting point or boiling point in a very short period of time, so that small holes will be formed inside the pipe at the cutting end.

The auxiliary gas following the cutting spot will blow away the molten material around the small hole, thus forming dust.

Most ordinary carbon steels have a high carbon content. When they are cut, most of them use oxygen as an auxiliary gas, which is easy to oxidize on the cutting surface.

Although this improves cutting efficiency, it will also lead to an increase in dust.

Sometimes, in order to cut thick pipes, high-power laser generators are usually used to ensure cutting efficiency and accuracy, which will make the cutting process produce more dust quickly.

Therefore, when cutting pipes, stainless steel and other materials shall be selected as far as possible.

When carbon steel pipes have to be selected to reduce costs, rust removal treatment can be carried out on the surface of the pipes first to reduce the corrosion of carbon steel pipes caused by oil and water stains.

Influence of chuck selection on cutting dedusting effect

Generally speaking, manufacturers of laser pipe cutting machines will choose chuck combinations that are suitable for their products, and the dust prevention effect of the chuck itself is getting better and better, especially for the chuck at the feeding end.

Although the chuck at the feeding end plays the role of feeding, due to the hollowing of the pipes, the dust of the chuck is more likely to accumulate.

There are two main dust-proof methods for feed chuck in the market:

One is to strive to improve the sealing accuracy of the chuck itself, especially the sealing accuracy of the jaw slider of the chuck at the feeding end, so that it can maintain good sealing even if the jaw is clamped for many times during multiple cutting;

The other is to place a dedusting hose at the tail of the feeding chuck, connect it to the dedusting fan, and absorb the dust at the feeding chuck through the suction of the dedusting fan when it is working.

The clamping chuck at the cutting end, because its position is close to the cutting head, will produce a large amount of dust whether cutting normal pipe parts or special shaped parts such as profiles, which makes the clamping chuck easier to affect its clamping accuracy due to dust accumulation.

Therefore, a suction outlet device will be installed at the place where the clamping chuck is close to the cutting head, and a dedusting hose will also be placed behind it and connected to the dedusting fan, so that when the laser pipe cutting machine is working, dust can be extracted through the dedusting fan, as shown in Figure 1.

Fig. 1 Dust removal pipe near cutting head

Influence of auxiliary gas on cutting dedusting effect

The laser pipe cutting machine irradiates the light spot formed after lens focusing by the laser beam on the surface of the pipe to be cut, so that its temperature rises in a very short time, so as to reach the melting point or boiling point of the pipe to be cut.

During the cutting process, because the surface of the pipe to be cut can reflect the laser to a certain extent, auxiliary gas can be injected during the cutting to improve the absorption of the pipe to the laser.

Generally speaking, during the cutting, in addition to the dust accumulation that is visible to the naked eye, there are also some fine dust that is difficult to detect by the naked eye.

When the cutting equipment works for a long time, they will accumulate in the optical path components of the cutting equipment, which will lead to damage to the cutting equipment and increase the cost of laser cutting.

Using auxiliary gas, you can blow away all kinds of dust in time to avoid the pollution of the cutting equipment by fine dust for a long time.

Oxygen, compressed air, nitrogen and other inert gases are generally used as auxiliary gases during cutting.

When oxygen is used as auxiliary gas, oxidation reaction will occur on the surface of the pipe to be cut to improve the cutting efficiency.

However, when cutting ordinary carbon steel pipes, it is easier to generate a large amount of dust.

Therefore, in the case of low requirements on the processing accuracy of parts, in order to control the production cost and not affect the cutting efficiency, compressed air can be used as an auxiliary gas, which can reduce the production of dust to a certain extent;

When nitrogen and other inert gases are used as auxiliary gases, the cut surface of the pipe to be cut can be fine and smooth, the amount of dust can be reduced, and the laser cut kerf is smaller, which is more conducive to the cutting of special-shaped pipes, such as H-shaped steel, channel steel, angle steel and other profiles, but also increases the production cost.

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