The cylindrical grinding machine is a grinding machine for machining the outer surface of the workpiece cylindrical, conical shape and the end surface of the shoulder.

Cylindrical Grinder

The main body is composed of a bed body, a front end, a rear end, a grinding head, a transmission dust collecting device.

The front end of the head and the angle of the grinding head can be used for grinding the thimble and the special clamp for the chamfering of the top roller.

Introduction

In the 1830s, in order to adapt to the hardening and processing of watches, bicycles, sewing machine guns and other parts, the United Kingdom, Germany and the United States respectively developed a natural abrasive wheel grinding machine.

These grinders were originally made by adding grinding heads to off-the-shelf machine tools such as lathes and planers. They are simple in structure, low in rigidity, and prone to vibration during grinding, requiring the operator to have a high skill in order to grind out precision workpieces.

The grinding machine grinds the surface of the workpiece with an abrasive tool.

Most grinders use high-speed rotating grinding wheels for grinding, and a few are processed with other abrasives such as whetstones and abrasive belts, such as honing machines, superfinishing machines, belt grinding machines, and grinding machine polishing machines.

Grinding machines can process materials with higher hardness, such as hardened steel, hard alloy, etc., and can also process brittle materials such as glass and granite.

The grinding machine can perform high-precision surface roughness with little grinding and high-efficiency grinding, such as strong grinding.

In 1876, Paris Expo exhibited the universal cylindrical grinding machine manufactured by Brown-Sharp Company of the United States. For the first time, it has the basic characteristics of modern grinding machines.

The workpiece headstock tailstock is mounted on a reciprocating table. The box-shaped bed increases the rigidity of the machine and has an internal grinding attachment.

In 1883, the company made a grinding head mounted on a column and a worktable for a reciprocating surface grinder.

Around 1900, the development of hydraulic transmission for artificial abrasives has greatly promoted the development of grinding machines.

With the development of the modern industrial special automobile industry, various types of grinding machines have been successively introduced.

For example, at the beginning of the 20th century, it has successively developed a cylindrical internal grinding machine for machining cylinder blocks, a crankshaft grinding machine, a camshaft grinding machine, and an electromagnetic suction cup piston ring grinding machine.

The automatic measuring device was applied to the grinding machine in 1908.

Before and after 1920, centerless grinders, double-face grinders, roll grinders, guide grinders, and honing machine superfinishing machines were successively used.

In the 1950s, there was a high-precision cylindrical grinding machine that could be used for mirror grinding.

At the end of the 1960s, there was a large-depth deep-cut, slow-feed grinding surface grinder with a grinding wheel speed of 60-80 m/sec.

In the 1970s, the use of micro-processor digital control adaptive control and other technical grinding machines has been widely used.

With the increase in the number of high-precision, high-hardness mechanical parts and the development of precision casting precision forging processes, the performance of grinding machines and the output of varieties have been continuously increasing.

The main types of grinding machines are cylindrical grinding machines, internal grinding machines, surface grinding machines, centerless grinding machines, tool grinding machines, etc.

Cylindrical grinding machines are the most widely used and can machine a variety of cylindrical conical outer surfaces and shoulder end face grinders.

The universal cylindrical grinding machine also has an internal grinding attachment that can grind the inner and outer tapered surfaces with large taper.

However, cylindrical grinding machines are less automated and are only suitable for small batch production and repair work.

The internal grinding wheel has a high spindle speed and can grind the cylindrical and conical inner bore surface.

Ordinary internal grinding machines are only suitable for single and small batch production.

In addition to the automatic work cycle, the automatic semi-automatic internal grinding machine can also process automatic measurement, mostly for mass production.

The surface grinder workpiece is generally clamped on the workbench, or is fixed on the electromagnetic workbench by electromagnetic attraction, and then the workpiece surface grinder is ground by the periphery or end face of the grinding wheel.

A centerless grinding machine generally refers to a centerless cylindrical grinding machine, that is, the workpiece is not centered or chucked, but the workpiece is ground by the outer circular surface as a positioning surface, and the workpiece is located between the grinding wheel guide wheels and supported by the pallet.

This type of grinding machine has high production efficiency, is easy to automate, and is used in large quantities.

The tool grinding machine is specially used for tool manufacturing. There are universal tool grinding machines, drill bit grinding machines, broaching edge grinding machines, tool curve grinding machines, etc., which are mostly used in tool manufacturers’ machinery manufacturing factory’s tool workshops.

Abrasive belt grinding machines use fast moving abrasive belts as grinding tools. The workpieces are supported by conveyor belts, which are several times more efficient than other grinding machines, and the power consumption is only a fraction of that of other grinding machines.

It is mainly used for processing large-size plates, heat-resistant and difficult-to-machine materials, and mass production of flat parts.

Specialized grinding machines specialize in the grinding of certain types of parts such as crankshafts, camshafts, splined shafts, guide rails, blades, bearing raceways and gear threads.

In addition to the above categories, there are many types of honing machines, grinding machines, and coordinate grinding machines.

Working principle

The workpiece is supported between the two tips of the head frame and the tailstock, and is rotated by the dial of the head frame for circular feeding motion.

The headstock and the tailstock are mounted on the workbench for longitudinal reciprocating feed motion.

The workbench is divided into two upper and lower layers, and the upper workbench can be adjusted to a small angle to grind the conical surface.

The wheel frame with high-speed rotating grinding wheel is used for lateral feed movement.

In order to reduce the length of the machine tool, the large cylindrical grinding machine is generally fixed, and the grinding wheel frame is used for longitudinal reciprocating motion and lateral feeding motion.

The grinding precision of the cylindrical grinding machine is generally: roundness does not exceed 3μm, surface roughness Ra 0.63 ~ 0.32 μm; high precision cylindrical grinding machine can reach roundness 0.1 μm and Ra 0.01μm respectively.

Cylindrical grinding machine classification

The cylindrical grinding machine is divided into a plunge-type cylindrical grinding machine, an end-face cylindrical grinding machine and a universal cylindrical grinding machine.

Plunge cylindrical grinder

When the length of the grinding part of the workpiece is less than the width of the grinding wheel, the grinding wheel only needs to be continuously fed in the transverse direction, and does not have to move relative to the workpiece in the axial direction. The productivity of the grinding machine is high.

End cylindrical grinding machine

The wheel frame is inclined at an angle around the vertical axis, and the surface of the grinding wheel is trimmed into two grinding faces parallel and perpendicular to the workpiece axis, and the outer circle and the shoulder end face of the workpiece can be simultaneously ground, which is generally used for mass production.

Universal cylindrical grinding machine

The grinding wheel frame is provided with an internal grinding attachment. The grinding wheel frame and the head frame can be adjusted at an angle around the vertical axis. The spindle can also rotate on the head frame in addition to the rotation of the dial. This kind of grinding machine can enlarge the processing range, grind the inner hole and the inner and outer taper with large taper, suitable for small and medium batch and single piece production.

In addition, there are double grinding wheel cylindrical grinding machines and multi-grinding wheel external grinding machines, which can grind two or more journals at the same time, which is suitable for mass production.

Structure

The main body is composed of a bed body, a front end, a rear end, a grinding head, a transmission dust collecting device and the like.

Front head, grinding head can be turned angle, used for grinding thimble and top roller

The special parts for chamfering, dynamic balance frame and top roller detector are ordered by the customer.

Classification

  1. Ordinary cylindrical grinding machine

The most common cylindrical grinding machine, the general processing roughness Ra value can reach Ra0.4.

  1. CNC cylindrical grinding machine

The CNC cylindrical grinding machine is pre-programmed according to the processing requirements, and the control system sends out numerical information instructions for processing, mainly for grinding the cylindrical and conical outer surface grinding machine.

CNC cylindrical grinding machines generally have the characteristics of generalization, high degree of modularity, high precision, high rigidity, high efficiency and high adaptability.

  1. High precision cylindrical grinding machine

Compared with the ordinary cylindrical grinding machine, the grinding efficiency can be greatly improved and the processing quality of the workpiece can be improved, thereby reducing labor costs.

  1. Ordinary cylindrical grinding machine models: M1320-520, M1320-750, M1332B-1000, M1332B-1500, M1332B-2000.
  2. Universal cylindrical grinding machine model: M1420-520, M1420-750, M1432B-1000, M1432B-1500, M1432B-2000

Characteristics

  • The grinding wheel spindle bearing adopts the tapered forming oil wedge dynamic pressure bearing and the grinding wheel spindle still has high bearing rigidity at low speed.
  • The guide rail of the wheel frame adopts the cross-roller guide rail, and the semi-automatic feed mechanism is realized by the rotary oil cylinder.
  • The tailstock shafting has the characteristics of no gap stiffness, and the electrical box and the hydraulic box cooling box are separated from the machine tool.
  • Rich grinding indicator and coolant filter.
  • The head frame speed has the AC variable frequency stepless speed regulation.
  • The electrical uses programmable logic controller (plc), with self-diagnosis function, maintenance is very convenient.
  • Optional automatic measuring instrument.

Application

Cylindrical grinding machines are mainly used for precision grinding of end faces, outer and conical surfaces of batches of shaft parts, and are the main equipment in the automotive engine industry.

It is also suitable for the processing of shaft parts with small batch size and high precision requirements in military, aerospace and general precision machining workshops.

(1) It is used in the textile spinning industry, thick yarn machine, draw frame machine, combing machine, texturing machine and other top roller processing.

(2) It is used in the manufacturing of office communication equipment, fax machines, copiers, printers, cutting plotters and other rubber rollers.

(3) Applicable to the printing, food, pharmaceutical industry automatic conveying device, the top roller, plastic processing.