Electron beam processing can be used for punching, cutting, etching, soldering, heat treatment, and lithography processing depending on the energy injection time of its power density.
The application of ion beam processing is expanding and innovating.
The current ion beam processing used to change part size and surface physical and mechanical properties is:
- Ion etching process for removing from a workpiece;
- Ion coating processing for coating the surface of a workpiece;
- Ion implantation processing for surface modification.
Both processing units have vacuum systems, control systems, and power supplies.
The main difference is that the electron beam processing uses an electron gun, and the ion beam processing uses an ion source system.
Compared with ion beam processing, electron beam processing has higher processing efficiency and wider application range;
The processing precision of ion beam processing is higher, and it is the most precise and microscopic processing method of all special processing methods.
In recent years, with the rapid development of nanotechnology and semiconductor integrated circuit industry, multi-functional, high-resolution electron beam processing and focused ion beam processing technology have received unprecedented attention.
They have become an important means of current micron nanofabrication.
Features of electron beam processing:
① Since the electron beam can be extremely finely focused and can even be focused to 0.1 μm, the processing area and the slit can be small, which is a precise and delicate processing method.
② The electron beam energy density is very high, so that the temperature of the irradiated part exceeds the melting and vaporization temperature of the material.
The removal of material relies mainly on instantaneous evaporation, which is a non-contact process.
The workpiece is not subjected to mechanical forces and does not cause macroscopic stress and deformation.
A wide range of materials can be processed for brittleness, toughness, conductors, non-conductors and semiconductor materials.
③ The electron beam has a high energy density, so the processing efficiency is high.
For example, 50 holes of 0.4 mm diameter can be drilled per second on a 2.5 mm thick steel plate.
④ The intensity, position, focus, etc. of the electron beam can be directly controlled by a magnetic field or electrons, so that the entire processing process is easy to be automated first.
Especially in electron beam exposure, the scanning of the machining pattern is determined from the machining position and can be automated.
When the electron beam is punched and cut, the shaped hole can be processed by electrical control, and curved arc cutting can be realized.
⑤ Since the electron beam processing is carried out in a vacuum, the contamination is small and the processed surface is not oxidized, and is particularly suitable for processing easily oxidizable metals and alloy materials, and semiconductor materials having extremely high first-order purity.
⑥ Electron beam processing requires a complete set of special equipment and vacuum system, which is more expensive and has certain limitations in production and application.
Characteristics of ion beam processing:
① Since the ion beam can be focused and scanned by the electron optical system, the ion beam bombarding material removes atoms layer by layer, and the ion beam current density and ion energy can be precisely controlled, so the ion etching can achieve nanometer (0.001 μm) level processing precision.
Ion coating can be controlled at sub-micron accuracy, and the depth and concentration of ion implantation can be controlled with extreme precision.
Therefore, the ion beam is the most precise and microfabrication of all special processing methods and is the basis of contemporary nanofabrication technology.
② Since ion beam processing is carried out in a high vacuum, it is less polluted and is particularly suitable for processing easily oxidizable metals, alloy materials and high purity semiconductor materials.
③ ion beam processing is achieved by ion bombardment of atoms on the surface of the material.
It is a microscopic effect and the macroscopic pressure is small.
Therefore, the processing stress, thermal deformation are extremely small, and the processing quality is high, and it is suitable for processing various materials and low-stiffness parts.
④ ion beam processing equipment is expensive, high cost, and low processing efficiency, so the application range is limited.