A feeder is a machine used to transport materials.
Feeder equipment finds extensive use in automation, numerical control, and precise conveying of various materials such as pellets, powders, flakes, strips, and more. It is an essential transmission equipment in both light and heavy industries.
Traditionally, feeders used the force of machine motion to transport materials, but modern feeders have undergone significant changes with the introduction of advanced technologies like high-pressure air and ultrasonic systems. Nonetheless, they still belong to the category of feeder-type equipment.
Highly automated feeding equipment includes computer-controlled moving head feeders, laser feeding feeders, high-pressure air feeders, and computer feeding feeders. Some foreign companies also produce projection feeders that use sensors and sighting devices to scan the material’s contour or project the material row for feeding arrangement guidance.
- Belt feeder
The general structure of a belt feeder mainly comprises a conveyor belt, drum, supporting device, driving device, tensioning device, discharging device, cleaning device, and frame.
A belt feeder is a continuous feeding machine that uses a conveyor belt as a traction and load-bearing member, which surrounds the front and rear rollers. The drive roller moves the conveyor belt by friction, and the animal material runs together with it to convey materials.
- Buried scraper feeder
The buried scraper feeder consists of a closed casing, a scraper chain, a driving device, and a tensioning device.
During operation, the material enters the carrying section of the casing through the feeding port. The buried scraper feeder moves forward along with the scraper chain under the thrust of the driving device, and automatically discharges the material after reaching the discharge port. Subsequently, the scraper chain returns along the empty section of the casing.
Due to the scraper chain being buried in the material and moving forward with it during operation, it is commonly referred to as the “buried scraper feeder”.
- Bucket feeder
The bucket feeder consists of several components, including a traction member (either a rubber belt or chain), a bearing member (hopper), a head wheel, a bottom wheel, a driving device, a tensioning device, and a casing.
The closed traction member is positioned around the head and bottom wheels and is tightened by the tensioning device. Meanwhile, the hopper is installed at a specific distance along the entire length of the traction member.
To prevent materials from spreading and dust from flying around, all the moving parts are covered by the casing.
During operation, the external drive propels the traction member and the hopper via the head wheel. The materials enter the base’s inlet and are collected by the moving hopper and lifted upward.
Once the materials reach the machine head, they are separated from the hopper by gravity and centrifugal force before being discharged from the discharge port.
- Screw feeder
The screw feeder is primarily composed of a spiral body consisting of a trough, a spiral blade, and a rotating shaft, as well as two end bearings, an intermediate suspension bearing, and a driving device.
As the spiral rotates, the material entering the slot is subjected to the normal thrust of the rotating blades. The radial component of the thrust and the friction between the blade and the material cause the material to rotate around the axis. However, the gravity of the material and the friction of the machine groove against the material prevent the material from rotating around the axis.
Only when the axial component of the helical blade against the normal thrust of the material overcomes the frictional force of the groove to the material and the radial component of the normal thrust, the material does not rotate with the spiral and only moves forward along the trough.
- Vibrating feeder
The vibrating feeder consists of several components including a conveying trough, a vibration exciter, a main vibrating spring, guiding rods, vibration isolating springs, a balance chassis, a feeding device, and a discharging device.
Vibratory feeders utilize an exciter to generate oblique vibrations in the tank, which allows for the transportation of materials from one location to another.