Forging Machines: Types, Components & Functions

Forging machine is a piece of metalworking and mechanical equipment that performs cold working.

Forging Machine

It only changes the outer shape of the metal.

Forging machine includes:

Mechanical structure

(1) Forging machine stamping formwork

The stamping die is the most typical component of forging machine tools and has been standardized and specialized in the earliest stage.

The stamping processes such as pressing, blanking, drawing, and slitting on the machine press are dependent on the stamping die.

The stamping die consists of a punch and a die mounted on the stamping formwork, which serves as its working part.

Different stamping processes require different punches and dies, but the same stamping formwork can be used.

The stamping formwork is made up of an upper and lower formwork, along with a guide post and sleeve.

A range of products for presses of various specifications and models have been developed, and stamping dies of medium size or smaller have been standardized.

(2) Forging machine brake

In the functional components of forging machine tools, the friction clutch-brake for machine tool presses is the first to be developed in terms of maturity, development, production, and usage.

The friction clutch-brake is a critical component of the press machine’s main drive, and its performance has a direct impact on the machine’s usability, safety, reliability, start-up rate, and maintenance.

There are two types of friction clutch-brake structures: combined and separate.

There are also two types of friction clutch-brake based on their working status: dry and wet.

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Finally, there are two types of friction clutch-brake control systems: pneumatic and hydraulic.

(3) Forging machine photoelectric safety protection device

The Photoelectric Safety Protection Device is equipped with an infrared light curtain that is invisible to the operator of the forging machine. This light curtain is positioned in a protective area between the operator and the dangerous work area.

If any part of the operator enters the protection zone and blocks the light curtain, the control system sends a signal to the forging machine’s safety actuator to stop the machine and prevent any dangerous actions from occurring.

It’s important to note that the photoelectric safety protection device itself does not provide direct protection to the operator. It only sends a signal to the machine tool to stop the dangerous action before an accident can occur.

For this reason, the photoelectric safety protection device should more accurately be referred to as the Photoelectric Safety Protection Control Device.

These devices are usually categorized into two types: reflective and through-beam.

The Reflective Photoelectric Safety Protection Device consists of a controller, sensor, and reflector. The light curtain is emitted by the sensor and reflected back to the sensor through the reflector for reception.

The Through-Beam Photoelectric Safety Protection Device consists of a controller, transmitting sensor, and receiving sensor. The light curtain is emitted by the transmitting sensor and received by the receiving sensor.

(4) Forging machine cam controller

The Cam Controller is a crucial component of the electrical control system for the press machine.

The process of determining the logical relationship of the machine’s working mechanism involves dividing the 360° rotation of the crankshaft into sections and creating a diagram of the press machine’s working cycle. The cam controller is responsible for controlling the operation of each mechanism within this cycle.

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The Cam Controller is attached to a shaft that rotates in synchronization with the crankshaft, and it coordinates the sequential execution of the prescribed actions by the working mechanism to complete a full cycle of the press machine.

(5) Forging machine automatic feeding device

There are several automatic feeding devices used in forging machines. This refers specifically to an automatic feeding device for sheet metal processing, including open presses, closed presses, multi-station presses, high-speed presses, single presses, or stamping automatic lines.

The automatic feeding device typically consists of three components: a material rack and unwinding leveling mechanism, a pneumatic clamp-type feeding mechanism, and a waste winding material rack.

The material rack and unwinding leveling mechanism serve three main purposes: supporting coiling, unwinding, and leveling. The unwinding mechanism eases the coil material into a freely suspended state, reducing the pulling force during the feeding process and improving feeding precision. The leveling mechanism, utilizing multiple rollers, corrects the sheet before stamping, leading to increased precision in the final product.

The pneumatic clamp feeding mechanism, powered by compressed air, controls the opening and closing and reciprocating movement of the clamp to complete the sheet feeding process. The reciprocating stroke is adjustable to accommodate varying feed length requirements.

The scrap rewinding rack winds the stamped waste strip, although this component is not necessary if the scrap material is cut and recycled during stamping.

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