A four-column press is a machine that uses static liquid pressure to process a variety of products, including metals, plastics, rubber, wood, powders, and more.
This technology is commonly used in pressing processes such as forging, stamping, cold extrusion, straightening, bending, flanging, sheet drawing, powder metallurgy, and press fittings.
Its principle is based on Pascal’s law, which utilizes liquid pressure transmission.
There are various types of this technology available, and its usage varies according to specific needs. For instance, there are two types of liquid pressure transmission depending on the type of liquid used.
- oil presses
- hydraulic presses
Utilizing compressed air as the power source, this equipment is highly efficient and easy to operate, boasting a simple structure that requires minimal maintenance.
During standby, the hydraulic system generates no noise, which can lead to reduced power consumption and lower production costs.
This equipment offers adjustable height, speed, stroke, pressure, and stamping time to cater to different products or molds.
Thanks to the anti-rotation guide bar and guide plate, this equipment provides high precision, enabling it to accommodate high-speed precision punching.
Operators can choose between optional two-hand control or pedaling to ensure their personal safety.
The equipment utilizes a microcomputer control system, offering manual, semi-automatic, and fully automatic modes. Additionally, it can incorporate heating molds, temperature control, and pressure sensors.
The machine features a simple structure and low production cost.
By utilizing pneumatic technology, an air compressor can power multiple pneumatic punching machines simultaneously, making it more energy-efficient and reducing power consumption compared to electric punching machines.
The operation of the machine is simple, and it has a high level of safety.
A foot switch is used to control the solenoid valve, which boasts a simple structure, low failure rate, and improved production efficiency.
This equipment is adaptable to electronics, instruments, meters, cameras, jewelry, hardware, clothing, shoes, and hats. It can cut, punch, blank, form, bend, and rive thin plates, strips, and coils. It is suitable for processing non-ferrous metals, plastic parts, and other materials.
Currently, in the field of punching various metal and non-metal pipes and plates, electric punching machines are predominantly used. However, electric punching machines are associated with high noise pollution and have complex structural components that make them expensive, difficult to maintain, and power-hungry. These machines also have a high failure rate and pose a safety hazard.
On the other hand, pneumatic punches are more hygienic and cleaner. They come equipped with advanced optoelectronic protection technology, which improves their safety performance. The combination of computer counting and programming enables unattended processing flow, thereby increasing work efficiency and reducing production costs.
Principle of action
The compressed gas is delivered to the solenoid valve via the pipeline, which utilizes the high-pressure gas produced by the compressor.
The solenoid valve’s operation is controlled by a foot switch, which manages the cylinder’s movement to achieve the desired punching outcome.
Compressed air can be stored in the gas storage tank and withdrawn at any time, eliminating motor idling energy waste.
The use of a cylinder as a working component and a solenoid valve as a control element results in a simpler machine structure.
With a low failure rate, high safety, simple maintenance, lower maintenance costs, and high production efficiency.
The solenoid valve’s control is achieved using a 220V power supply, which makes operation simple and convenient.
The four-column press is comprised of two primary components – the main machine and the control machine. The pipeline and electrical system devices are connected to create a complete unit, with the main machine composed of a body and a master cylinder.
The control mechanism comprises several parts, including the power structure, limit device, pipeline, and electrical box. Each part’s structure and function are described below:
① Machine body
The machine body comprises the upper beam, slider, worktable, column, lock nut, and adjusting nut.
The four columns serve as the machine’s framework, with the upper beam and worktable fixed at the two ends by the lock nut, thereby forming a complete unit.
The machine’s precision is adjusted using the adjusting nut. The slider’s four corners have wear-resistant material guide sleeves, which are secured to the upper and lower faces of the slider using hexagon socket screws.
Dustproof wool felt is available for dust protection.
The slider’s upper surface is linked to the cylinder’s rod flange, which guides the slider’s upward and downward movements with the aid of the four columns.
A T-slot is included on the upper surface of the table and the lower surface of the slider to allow the mold to be mounted.
② Master cylinder
The machine’s cylinder structure consists of a cylinder block, guide sleeve, piston head, piston rod, lock nut, coupling flange, and cylinder flange.
The cylinder body is secured to the middle hole of the upper beam using the cylinder shoulder and the large lock nut. The lower end surface of the piston is connected to the slider through the coupling flange.
The piston head is attached to the piston rod and fastened with a lock nut. Two sets of YA-type sealing rings with opposite directions are mounted on the piston head, and the oil cylinder is divided into two oil chambers to enable pressing and returning operations.
The cylinder guide bushing is installed at the lower end of the cylinder block. The inner hole of the cylinder guide bushing is also equipped with a YA-type seal ring, and an O-ring seal is positioned on the outer circumference.
To ensure the cylinder’s sealing, the cylinder flange and hexagon socket screw fasten it to the end surface of the cylinder block.