A lathe is a machine tool that mainly turns a rotating workpiece with a turning tool.
On the lathe, drills, reamer, reamer, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used for machining.
The main components of the lathe are: headstock, exchange gearbox, feed box, slide box, tool holder, tailstock, light rod, lead screw, bed, foot and cooling device.
Also known as the spindle box.
Its main task is to pass the rotary motion from the main motor through a series of shifting mechanisms to get the spindle to obtain the different rotation speeds of the required forward and reverse steering, while the spindle box splits part of the power to transmit the motion to the feed box.
The spindle in the headstock is a key part of the lathe.
The smoothness of the spindle running on the bearing directly affects the machining quality of the workpiece.
Once the rotation accuracy of the spindle is reduced, the value of the machine tool is reduced.
Also known as the knife box.
The feed box is equipped with a shifting mechanism for the feed motion, and the shifting mechanism is adjusted to obtain the required feed amount or pitch, and the motion is transmitted to the tool holder through the light rod or the lead screw for cutting.
Lead screw and light rod
It is used to connect the feed box and the slide box, and transfer the movement and power of the feed box to the slide box, so that the slide box can obtain longitudinal linear motion.
The lead screw is specially designed to turn various threads.
When performing other surface turning of the workpiece, only the light rod is used and the lead screw is not used.
The difference between the light rod and the lead screw should be distinguished from the contents of the slide box.
It is the control box for the lathe feed motion.
It is equipped with a mechanism that changes the rotary motion of the light rod and the lead screw into a linear motion of the tool holder.
The longitudinal feed movement, the lateral feed movement and the rapid movement of the tool holder are realized by the light rod drive.
The tool holder is driven by the lead screw for longitudinal linear motion to turn the thread.
It consists of two layers of slides (medium and small slides), a saddle and a tool holder.
It is used to install the turning tool and drive the turning tool for longitudinal, lateral or oblique movement.
Installed on the bed rail and moved longitudinally along the rail to adjust its working position.
The tailstock is mainly used to install the rear tip to support longer workpieces, as well as drills, reapers, etc. for hole machining.
It is a large basic component of a lathe with a highly accurate guide rail (mountain rail and flat rail).
It is used to support and connect the various components of the lathe and to ensure that the components have an accurate relative position during operation.
The cooling device mainly pressurizes the cutting fluid in the water tank by the cooling water pump and then sprays it into the cutting area, reduces the cutting temperature, washes away the chips, and lubricates the machining surface to improve the tool life and the surface quality of the workpiece.