The machine tool manipulator is an automated machine that mimics the operation of a human hand.
Robots are capable of picking up, moving objects, and manipulating tools to perform specific tasks. They have the ability to replace humans in monotonous, repetitive, or physically demanding manual labor, thus realizing the mechanization and automation of production. In addition, robots can replace human operators in hazardous environments, improve working conditions, and ensure personal safety.
In the late 1940s, the United States first used robots in atomic energy experiments to handle radioactive materials. Humans in the security room operated the manipulators to perform various tasks and experiments.
Since the 1950s, robots have gradually been used in industrial production departments for tasks such as picking and placing workpieces and loading and unloading materials in areas with high temperatures and serious pollution.
They have also been used as auxiliary devices for machine tools in automatic machine tools, automatic production lines, and machining centers to complete loading and unloading, and to replace tools according to a fixed program.
A robot is mainly composed of a hand mechanism and a motion mechanism. The hand mechanism is determined by the specific occasion and object of operation, with common types including clamping, holding, and suction.
The motion mechanism is generally driven by hydraulic, pneumatic, or electrical devices. Robots can independently carry out telescopic, rotating, and lifting movements, and generally have 2 to 3 degrees of freedom.
Robots are widely used in machinery manufacturing, metallurgy, light industry, and atomic energy.