Purest metal – Germanium
Germanium purified by zonal fusion technology with a purity of “thirteen nine” (99.999999999%).
The most metals – Aluminum
About 8 percent of the earth’s crust. Aluminum compounds are found all over the earth. Common soil also contains a lot of aluminas.
▲ Trihydrous bauxite is a hydroxide mineral of aluminum and is the main component in bauxite deposit.
The fewest metals – Polonium
A very small amount in the crust.
Lightest metal – Lithium
Half the weight of water, Not only can it float on water, it can float in kerosene.
▲ The first lithium ore to be found was perthite.
The hardest metal to melt – Tungsten
The melting point of tungsten is 3410°C, and its boiling point is 5700°C. When a lamp is lit, the filament temperature rises above 3000°C, and only tungsten is capable of withstanding such high temperatures. China is the world’s largest storage country for tungsten, which is primarily found in the form of scheelite and wolframite.
Metals with the lowest melting point – Mercury
The freezing point is 38.7 ℃.
▲ Cinnabar is the main mineral raw material for mercury refining. The crystal can be used as an important material for laser technology.
The most productive metal – Iron
Iron is the metal with the highest annual production output. In 2017, the global output of crude steel reached 1.6912 billion tons. Additionally, iron is the second most abundant metallic element found in the Earth’s crust.
▲ Hematite is widely distributed in nature, is an important raw material of iron, and can also be used as a red pigment.
Metals that absorb gas best -Palladium
One volume of metal palladium at room temperature can absorb 900-2,800 volumes of hydrogen.
▲ Platinum-palladium mine
The most malleable metal – Gold
1 gram of gold can be pulled into 4000 meters long filaments; If beaten into gold, the thickness can be up to 5 x 10e-4 mm.
The most ductile metal -Platinum
The thinnest platinum wire is only 1/5000mm in diameter.
▲ Native platinum
The most conductive metal – Silver
It is 59 times more conductive than mercury
▲ Native silver
The most abundant metallic elements in human body – Calcium
Calcium is the most abundant metallic element in human body, accounting for approximately 1.4% of human body.
▲ The main composition of dolomite is CaMg(CO3)2
The top-ranked transition metal – Scandium
Scandium has an atomic number of only 21, the most advanced transition metal.
The most expensive metal – Californium
The world offered only about a gram of californium in 1975, with a gram going for about $1 billion.
The easiest superconducting element to use – Niobium
When it is cooled to a temperature of -263.9℃, it will be metamorphosed into a superconductor which has almost no resistance.
▲ Pyrochlore. A mineral containing niobium
Heaviest metal – Osmium
Iridium, which weighs 22.59 grams per cubic centimeter, its dense is about twice as lead and three times as iron.
The least hard metal – Sodium
Sodium: it has a mohs hardness of 0.4 and can be cut with a knife at room temperature.
▲ Sodium chloride
The hardest metal – Chromium
Chromium (Cr), known as “hard bone”, is a silvery white metal that is extremely hard and brittle. Mohs is 9, second only to diamonds.
▲ Chromium lead ore is the first artificial mineral to be discovered
The earliest used metal – Copper
According to research, China’s earliest bronze ware has a history of more than 4000 years.
▲ Chalcopyrite. Chinese Shang Dynasty already used chalcopyrite to refine copper
The metal with the most scope of liquid – Gallium
Its melting point is 29.78 ℃, the boiling point of 2205 ℃
▲ Gallium is a by-product of the industrial processing of sphalerite, pyrite, bauxite and germanium. The picture shows pure gallium.
Metals most likely to produce an electric current when exposed to light – Caesium
Its main use is the production of various photocell.
▲ Cesium zeolite, formerly known as cremanite
The most active element in alkaline earth metals – Barium
The chemical activity of barium is very big, it is the most active in alkaline earth metals. It was introduced as a metallic element in 1808.
▲ The most common mineral in nature is barite
The metal that fears cold most – Tin
When the temperature is lower than 13.2 ℃, tin begins to collapse; when the temperature below -30 ~ -40 ℃, it will immediately turn into powder, this phenomenon is often called “tin pest”.
▲ Tin pest
Metals most toxic to humans – Plutonium
It is 486 million times as deadly as arsenic and is the most potent carcinogen, with 1 x 10-6 grams of plutonium able to cause cancer.
The greatest natural gold
The discovery was made on October 19, 1872 by the star of hope gold mine in the hillender region of Australia, weighing 214.3 kilograms.
▲ The largest natural gold was photographed with its discoverer in 1872.
The largest natural silver
Found in the Sonora region of Mexico, it weighed 1026.5 kilograms.
Largest natural copper
Weighing 26 tons, it was discovered in 1977 at the horton quincy mine in the US state of Michigan.
The largest reserves of radioactive elements in the sea – Uranium
Uranium is the most abundant radioactive element in seawater, with an estimated 4 billion tons, 1544 times the amount found on land.
The most abundant elements in seawater – Potassium
Potassium is present in seawater in the form of potassium ions, with a content of about 0.38g/kg, which is the element with the highest content in seawater.
▲ Nitrate can be directly produced by mining and enrichment
The metal with the highest atomic number of stable elements – Lead
Lead has the highest atomic number of all stable chemical elements.
There are four stable isotopes in nature: lead 204, 206, 207 and 208
The most common human allergenic metal – Nickel
Nickel is the most common sensitizing metal and about 20 percent of people are allergic to nickel ions.
▲ Nickel mine, also known as “red nickel mine”
The most important metals in aerospace – Titanium
Titanium is a grey transition metal, characterized by lightweight, high strength and good corrosion resistance, which is praised as “space metal.
▲ Titanium ore
The most acidic metal – Tantalum
In both cold and hot conditions, it does not react with hydrochloric acid, concentrated nitric acid and “chloroazotic acid”. Even placed in 175 ℃ concentrated sulfuric acid for a year, the corrosion thickness is only 0.0004 mm.
Metal with the smallest atomic radius – Beryllium
Its atomic radius is 89pm
The most corrosion-resistant metal – Iridium
Iridium acid is highly chemically stable, insoluble in acids, and only the spongy iridium slowly dissolves in hot aqua regia. If it is in a compact state, even boiling aqua regia cannot corrode it.
▲ Iridium is naturally present in the platinum mine
The most distinctive metal in color – Copper
The pure metal copper is in mauve.
▲ Copper powder
Metals with the most isotopes – Tin
There are 10 stable isotopes
The heaviest alkali metals – Francium
Formed by the decay of actinides, is a radioactive metal. It’s the heaviest metal in the alkali metal. The atomic mass is 223.
The last metal found by man – Rhenium
Super metal rhenium is a truly rare element, plus it does not form fixed minerals, usually associated with other metals. This makes it the last element found in nature.
▲ Metal rhenium exists in molybdenum
The most special metals at room temperature – Mercury
At room temperature, metals are solid, but mercury is the most unusual, being the only liquid metal at room temperature.
▲ Liquid mercury, also known as “mercury”