I believe the people who worked in machinery industry are indispensable to deal with commonly used metal materials. Today, I will share with you 24 commonly used metal materials used in machinery and mold processing. Do you know them all?
1. 45 — high-quality carbon structural steel
It’s the most commonly used quenched and tempered medium carbon steel.
The most commonly used quenched and tempered medium carbon steel has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low hardenability, and cracks easily during water quenching.
Small parts should be quenched and tempered, and large parts should be normalized.
Mainly used for manufacturing high-strength moving parts, such as turbine impellers, compressor pistons, shafts, gears, racks, worms, etc.
Welding parts should be preheated before welding and stress relief annealing after welding.
2. Q235A (A3 steel)
It’s the most commonly used carbon structural steel.
It has high plasticity, toughness, welding performance, cold stamping performance, as well as a certain strength and good cold bending performance.
It is widely used for generally required parts and welded structures. Such as low tension rods, connecting rods, pins, shafts, screws, nuts, ferrules, brackets, bases, building structures, bridges, etc.
One of the most widely used steel and belongs to alloy structural steel.
After quenching and tempering, it has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low temperature impact toughness and low notch sensitivity.
It has good hardenability, high fatigue strength can be obtained when oil-cooled, parts with complex shapes are prone to cracks when water-cooled, moderate cold bend plasticity, and good machinability after tempering or quenching and tempering.
However, the weldability is not good and it is easy to produce cracks.
It should be preheated to 100 ℃ to 150 ℃ before welding.
It is generally used in the quenched and tempered state. Carbonitriding and high-frequency surface induction hardening can also be performed.
After quenching and tempering, it is used to manufacture medium speed and medium load parts, such as machine tool gears, shafts, worms, spline shafts, tailstock spindle, etc.
After quenching and tempering and high-frequency surface induction hardening, it is used to manufacture high-hardness and wear-resistant parts on the surface, such as gears, shafts, spindles, crankshafts, mandrels, sleeves, pins, connecting rods, screws and nuts as well as intake valves.
After quenching and tempering at medium temperature, it is used to manufacture heavy-load, medium-speed impact parts, such as oil pump rotors, sliders, gears, spindles, collars, etc.
After quenching and low-temperature tempering, it is used to manufacture heavy-duty, low-impact, wear-resistant parts, such as worms, spindles, shafts, collars, etc.
4. HT150 — Gray cast iron
Gear box, machine bed, box, hydraulic cylinder, pump body, valve body, flywheel, cylinder head, pulley, bearing cover, etc.
5. 35 — common materials for various standard parts and fasteners
Appropriate strength, good plasticity, high cold plasticity, and acceptable weldability.
It can be partially upset and brushed in cold state.
It has low hardenability and can be used after normalizing or quenching and tempering.
Suitable for manufacturing small cross-section parts and parts that can withstand large loads, such as crankshafts, levers, connecting rods, shackles, etc., as well as other various standard parts, fasteners.
6. 65Mn — commonly used Spring Steel
It is used to make various small-sized flat or round springs, seat cushion springs, springs, and can also be used to make spring rings, valve springs, clutch springs, brake springs, cold-rolled coil springs, snap springs and etc..
It’s the most commonly used stainless steel (304 in US, SUS304 in Japanese.
Features and applications:
As stainless heat-resistant steel, it is most widely used, such as food equipment, general chemical equipment, and industrial equipment.
It’s a commonly used cold work die steel (D3 in American, SKD1 in Japanese.
Features and applications:
Cr12 steel is a widely used cold-working die steel, which is a high carbon high chromium type lyeite steel.
The steel has good hardenability and good wear resistance.
Because the carbon content of Cr12 steel is as high as 2.3%, so that the impact toughness is poor, it is easy to be brittle and to form uneven eutectic carbides.
Because of its good wear resistance, Cr12 steel is mostly used to produce cold punches, punches, blanking dies, cold heading dies, cold extrusion dies, and dies with low impact load and high wear resistance. And drill sleeves, gauges, wire drawing dies, stamping dies, wire drawing boards, drawing dies and cold pressing dies for powder metallurgy.
It’s a commonly used cold-work die steel imported from Japan
Features and applications:
High-strength and toughness cold-working die steel, the steel grade of Japan Datong Special Steel Co. Ltd.
After high temperature tempering, it has high hardness, high toughness, and good wire cutting.
It’s been used to produce precision cold stamping dies, stretching dies, wire dies, cold punching dies, punches, etc.
10. DC Cr12MoV — wear-resistant chrome steel
It’s produced in China. The carbon content is lower than that of Cr12 steel.
Mo and V are added, so that the carbide unevenness is improved.
MO can reduce carbide segregation and improve hardenability, V can refine grains and increase toughness.
This steel has high hardenability, and the cross section below 400mm can be completely hardened.
It can still maintain good hardness and wear resistance at 300℃ – 400 ℃, and has higher toughness than Cr12.
Small volume change during quenching, it also has high wear resistance and good comprehensive mechanical properties.
Therefore, it is possible to manufacture various molds with large cross-sections, complex shapes and withstanding large impacts.
For example, ordinary drawing die, punching die, punching die, blanking die, trimming die, beading die, wire drawing die, cold extrusion die, cold cutting scissors, circular saw, standard tools, measuring tools, etc.
11. SKD11 — Ductile Chrome Steel
Made by Hitachi, Japan. Technically improve the cast structure in steel, refine the grains, compared with Cr12mov, the toughness and wear resistance have been improved, and the service life of the mold has been extended.
12. D2 — high-carbon high-chromium cold work steel
Made in the USA, with high hardenability, hardening capacity, wear resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, good rust resistance after quenching and polishing, and small heat treatment deformation.
It is suitable to manufacture various cold work dies, knives and measuring tools that require high precision and long life, such as stretch dies, cold extrusion dies, cold shear knives, etc.
13. S KD11 (SLD) — non-deformable and tough High Chromium Steel
Made by Hitachi, Japan. As the content of MO and V in steel increases, the cast structure in steel is improved, the grains are refined, and the morphology of carbides is improved, so the toughness (bend strength, deflection, impact toughness, etc.) of this steel is better than SKD1 D2, abrasion resistance is also increased, and it also has higher tempering resistance.
Practice has proven that the life of this steel mold is improved compared to Cr12mov.
Often used to manufacture molds with high requirements, such as tensile molds, impact molds and so on.
14. DC53 — high-toughness High Chromium Steel
Made by TATUNG, Japan. The hardness of heat treatment is higher than SKD11.
After high temperature (520℃-530℃) tempering, it can reach 62-63HRC high hardness.
In terms of strength and wear resistance, DC53 exceeds SKD11, and its toughness is twice that of SKD11. The toughness of DC53 rarely causes cracks and chaps in the manufacture of cold work molds, which greatly improves the service life.
Residual stress is small, after turning back at high temperature, residual stress is reduced because cracks and deformation after wire cutting are suppressed.
It’s machinability and abrasiveness exceed SKD11 and is used to make precision stamping dies, cold forging, deep drawing dies, etc.
15. SKH-9 — general High-speed Steel with high wear resistance and toughness
Made by Hitachi, Japan. Used for making cold heading dies, slitting machines, drills, reamers, punches, etc.
16. ASP23 — Powder metallurgy High-speed Steel
Made in Sweden. Carbide has extremely uniform distribution, it has the characteristics of wear resistance, high toughness, easy processing, and stable heat treatment size.
Used to make various long-life cutting tools such as punches, deep drawing dies, drilling dies, milling cutters and shearing blades.
17. P20 — General required size plastic mold
Produced in the United States and can be electroeroded. Factory-pre-hardened HB270-300.
Hardening hardness HRC52.
18. 718 — high-demand size plastic mold
Made in Sweden and can be electroeroded.
Hardened hardness HRC52.
19. Nak80 — plastic mold with high mirror surface and high precision
Produced by TATUNG in Japan.
Hardening hardness HRC52
20. S136 — anti-corrosion and mirror-polished plastic mold
Made in Sweden.
Hardening hardness HRC52.
21. H13 — commonly used die casting mold
Used for aluminum, zinc, magnesium, alloy die casting, hot stamping die and aluminum extrusion die.
22. SKD61 — advanced die casting mold
Made by Hitachi, Japan. After electrolysis re-dissolution technology, the service life is significantly improved than H13. Can be used to make hot stamping dies, aluminum extrusion dies.
23. 8407 — advanced die casting mold
Made in Sweden and can be used to make hot stamping dies, aluminum extrusion dies.
24. FDAC — added sulfur to enhance its ease of cutting
Factory pre-hardened hardness 338-42HRC, can be directly carved. No quenching or tempering is required. Used to make mold parts with short lead times, such as small batch molds, simple molds, various resin products, sliding parts, zipper molds as well as glasses frame molds.