The sensor (English name: transducer/sensor) is a detection device that can sense the measured information and can transform the sensed information into an electrical signal or other required form of information output to meet the requirement for information transmission, processing, storage, display, recording, and control.


The characteristics of the sensor include: miniaturization, digitization, intelligence, multi-function, systemization, and networking.

It is the first step in achieving automatic detection and automatic control.

The existence and development of the sensor allows the object to have senses such as touch, taste and smell, and let the object slowly become alive.

Generally, it is divided into ten categories, including:

  • Thermal element
  • Photosensitive element
  • Gas sensor
  • Force sensitive component
  • Magnetic sensor
  • Humidity sensor
  • Acoustic sensor
  • Radiation sensitive component
  • Color sensitive component
  • Taste sensitive component


The national standard GB7665-87 defines the sensor as: “A device that can sense a specified measured piece and convert it into a usable signal according to a certain law (the mathematical function rule), usually composed of a sensitive element and a conversion element.”

The China Internet of Things School and Enterprise Alliance believes that the existence and development of sensors allows objects to have senses such as touch, taste and smell, and let the objects slowly become alive. ”

“Sensor” is defined in the new Wei-style dictionary as “receiving power from one system and deliver to the device in the second system, usually in another form.”

Main role

In order to obtain information from the outside world, people must resort to the sensory organs.

And by relying on people’s own sensory organs, their functions in researching natural phenomena and laws and production activities are far from enough.

To accommodate this situation, sensors are needed.

Therefore, it can be said that the sensor is an extension of the human five senses, also known as electric five senses.

With the advent of the new technological revolution, the world has entered the information age.

In the process of using information, the first thing to be solved is to obtain accurate and reliable information.

Sensors are the primary means of obtaining information in the natural and productive fields.

In modern industrial production, especially in automated production processes, various sensors are used to monitor and control the various parameters of the production process, to operate the equipment in a normal or optimal state, and to achieve the best quality of the product.

Therefore, it can be said that without many excellent sensors, modern production will lose its foundation.

In the basic research, the sensor has a prominent position.

The development of modern science and technology has entered many new fields.

For example, on the macro level, we must observe the universe of thousands of light years.

Microscopically, we must observe the particle world as small as fm.

In the longitudinal direction, we must observe the evolution of celestial bodies for hundreds of thousands of years, and the short-term response to s.

In addition, there have been various extreme technological studies that have an important role in deepening material understanding, exploring new energy sources, and new materials, such as ultra-high temperature, ultra-low temperature, ultra-high pressure, ultra-high vacuum, super-strong magnetic field, and ultra-weak magnetic field.

Obviously, it is impossible to obtain information that is not directly accessible to human senses, and that there is no suitable sensor.

The obstacles to many basic scientific research are, first of all, the difficulty in obtaining object information.

The emergence of new mechanisms and high-sensitivity detection sensors often leads to breakthroughs in the field.

The development of some sensors is often the pioneer of some marginal discipline development.

Sensors have long penetrated into areas such as industrial production, space development, ocean exploration, environmental protection, resource surveys, medical diagnostics, bioengineering, and even cultural relics protection.

It is no exaggeration to say that from the vast space, to the vast ocean, to various complex engineering systems, almost every modern project can not be separated from a variety of sensors.

It can be seen that the important role of sensor technology in developing the economy and promoting social progress is very obvious.

All countries in the world attach great importance to the development of this field.

It is believed that in the near future, sensor technology will have a leap to reach a new level commensurate with its important position.

Main feature

The characteristics of the sensor include: miniaturization, digitization, intelligence, multi-function, systemization, and networking.

It not only promotes the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, but also may establish new industries, thus becoming a new economic growth point in the 21st century.

Miniaturization is based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and has been successfully applied to silicon devices as silicon pressure sensors.

Sensor composition

The sensor generally consists of four parts: a sensitive component, a conversion component, a conversion circuit, and an auxiliary power supply.

The sensitive component directly senses the measured value and outputs a physical quantity signal that has a certain relationship with the measured.

The conversion element converts the physical quantity signal output by the sensitive element into an electrical signal.

The conversion circuit is responsible for amplifying and modulating the electrical signal output by the conversion element.

The conversion component and the conversion circuit generally also require an auxiliary power supply.

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