Have you ever wondered how to accurately calculate the weight of steel or metal for your projects? In this blog post, we’ll explore the fascinating world of steel weight calculation formulas. As an experienced mechanical engineer, I’ll guide you through the essential concepts and provide practical examples to help you master this crucial skill. Whether you’re a professional or a DIY enthusiast, understanding how to determine the weight of various metals will empower you to tackle your projects with confidence and precision. Get ready to dive into the world of steel weight calculation and unlock valuable insights that will elevate your engineering prowess!

The following weight calculation formula can be used to calculate the steel/metal weight:

**Weight (kg) = Sectional Area (mm ^{2}) × Length (m) × Density (ρ, g/cm^{3})× 1/1000**

Above is the formula to calculate the steel weight in kg.

For the metal density, you can also refer to the following:

- Density Table of Metals (Iron, Steel, Brass, Aluminum) and Alloys
- Density Table for Commonly Used Sheet Metal Materials

To assist you in calculating the weight of various metals and steels, including MS plate, GI sheet, structural steel, MS angle, mild steel, steel bar, square tube, angle, and aluminum, we have created a Steel Weight Calculator and Metal Weight Calculator to help you determine the weight of metals in different shapes.

The unit of measurement for calculating the theoretical weight of steel is kilograms (kg). The basic formula is:

W (Weight, kg) = F (Cross-sectional Area, mm²) × L (Length, m) × ρ (Density, g/cm³) × 1/1000

The density of steel is: 7.85g/cm³

Simply enter data indicated (Decimal Inches), move from left to right making computations by factors as shown.

**ROUND**Diameter x Diameter x**2.6729 = Lbs. Per Foot****FLAT**Thickness x Width x**3.4032 = Lbs. Per Foot****SQUARE**Diameter x Diameter x**3.4032 = Lbs. Per Foot****HEXAGON***Diameter x Diameter x**2.9437 = Lbs. Per Foot****OCTAGON***Diameter x Diameter x**2.8193 = Lbs. Per Foot****PIPE**Actual O.D. – Wall x Wall x**10.68 = Lbs. Per Foot****TUBE**O.D. – Wall x Wall x**10.68 = Lbs. Per Foot****SHEET**Thickness x Width x Length x**.2904 = Lbs. Each****COIL**O.D. x O.D. – I.D. x I.D. x**.2223 = Lbs. Per Inch of Width****SHEET CIRCLE**Diameter x Diameter x Thickness x**.228 = Lbs. Each****PLATE**Thickness x Width x Length x**.2836 = Lbs. Each**

**P****L****A****TE**** ****SHAPES:**

**CIRCL****E****.222****7****=****Lb****s****.****Each****RIN****G****.2227****=****Lbs.****Each****CIRCLE SECTOR**Radius x Radius x Number of Degrees in Arc x Thickness x**.0025 = Lbs. Each****TRIANGLE (Right Angle)**Base Length x Height x Thickness x**.1418 = Lbs. Each****TRAPEZOIDS (2 Sides Parallel)**Side “**A**” + Side “**B**” x Height x Thickness x**14.18 = Lbs.Each****HEXAGON (Equal Sides)**Side Length x Side Length x**.7367 = Lbs. Each****OCTAGON**Side Length x Side Length x**1.3692 = Lbs. Each**

NOTE: Formulas Are Based on Nominal Weights at .2836 Lbs. Per Cubic Inch and Should Be Considered Approximations Only Rather Than Actual Scale Weight

**Weights of Various Metals in Pounds Per *Cubic Foot**

Aluminum | 168.48 | Copper | 559.87 |

Antimony | 419.99 | Gold | 1206.83 |

Beryllium | 113.7 | Gun Metal (Aver.) | 544 |

Bismuth | 611 | Iridium | 1396 |

Brass (Approx.) | 535.68 | Iron | 491.09 |

Bronze, Alum. | 481 | Iron, Cast Grey | 442 |

Bronze (Approx.) | 541 | Iron,Wrought | 480 |

Cadmium | 540.86 | Iron, Slag | 172 |

Chromium | 428 | Lead | 707.96 |

Cobalt | 552.96 | Magnesium | 108.51 |

Manganese | 463.1 | Silver | 654.91 |

Mercury | 849 | Stainless Steel (18-8) | 494.21 |

Molybdenum | 637.63 | Steel, Cast/Rolled | 490 |

Monel Metal | 556 | Tin | 455.67 |

Nickel | 555.72 | Titanium | 283.39 |

Osmium | 1402 | Tungsten | 1204.41 |

Palladium | 712 | Vanadium | 374.97 |

Platinum | 1339.2 | Zinc | 445.3 |

Rhodium | 755 | *1728 CU. IN. PER CU. FT. | |

Ruthenium | 765 |

**1. Steel Plate weight calculation formula**

• Formula: length(m)×width(m)×thickness(mm)×7.85

• E.g: 6m (length)×1.51m(width)×9.75mm (thickness)

• Calculation: 6×1.51×9.75×7.85=693.43kg

**2. Steel Pipe weight calculation formula**

• Formula: (OD-wall thickness)×wall thickness(mm)×length(m)×0.02466

• E.g: 114mm(OD)×4mm(wall thickness)×6m(length)

• Calculation: (114-4)×4×6×0.02466=65.102kg

**3. Steel Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: dia.(mm)×dia.(mm)×length(m)×0.00617

• E.g: Φ20mm (dia.)×6m(length)

• Calculation: 20×20×6×0.00617=14.808kg

**4. Square Steel weight calculation formula**

• Formula: side width(mm)×side width(mm)×length(m)×0.00785

• E.g: 50mm(side width)×6m(length)

• Calculation: 50×50×6×0.00785=117.75(kg)

**5. Flat Steel weight calculation formula**

• Formula: side width(mm)×thickness(mm)×length(m)×0.00785

• E.g: 50mm(side width)×5.0mm(thickness)×6m(length)

• Calculation: 50×5×6×0.00785=11.775(kg)

**6. Hexagonal Steel weight calculation formula**

• Formula: side-to-side dia.×side-to-side dia.× length(m)×0.0068

• E.g: 50mm(dia.)×6m (length)

• Calculation: 50×50×6×0.0068=102(kg)

**7. Rebar weight calculation formula**

• Formula: dia.mm×dia.mm×length(m)×0.00617

• E.g: Φ20mm(dia.)×12m(length)

• Calculation: 20×20×12×0.00617=29.616kg

**8. Flat Steel Tube weight calculation formula**

• Formula: (side length+side width)×2×thickness×length(m)×0.00785

• E.g: 100mm×50mm×5mm(thickness)×6m (length)

• Calculation: (100+50)×2×5×6×0.00785=70.65kg

**9. Rectangular Steel Tube weight calculation formula**

• Formula: side width(mm)×4×thickness×length(m)×0.00785

• E.g: 50mm×5mm (thickness)×6m(length)

• Calculation: 50×4×5×6×0.00785=47.1kg

**10. Equal-leg Angle Steel weight calculation formula**

• Formula: (side width×2-thickness)×thickness×length(m)×0.00785

• E.g: 50mm×50mm×5(thickness)×6m(length)

• Calculation: (50×2-5)×5×6×0.00785=22.37kg

**11. Unequal-leg Angle Steel weight calculation formula**

• Formula: (side width+side width-thickness)×thickness×length(m)×0.0076

• E.g: 100mm×80mm×8(thickness)×6m(length)

• Calculation: (100+80-8)×8×6×0.0076=62.746kg

**12. Brass Pipe weight calculation formula**

• Formula: (OD-wall thickness)×thickness(mm)×length(m)×0.0267

**13. Copper Pipe weight calculation formula**

• Formula: (OD-wall thickness)×thickness(mm)×length(m)×0.02796

**14. Aluminum Checkered Sheet weight calculation formula**

• Formula: length(m)×width(mm)×thickness (mm)×0.00296

**15. Brass Pipe weight calculation formula**

• Formula: length(m)×width(mm)×thickness(mm)×0.0085

**16. Copper Sheet weight calculation formula**

• Formula: length(m)×width(mm)×thickness(mm)×0.0089

**17. Zinc Plate weight calculation formula**

• Formula: length(m)×width(mm)×thickness(mm)×0.0072

**18. Lead Sheet weight calculation formula**

• Formula: length(m)×width(mm)×thickness(mm)×0.01137

**19. Octagonal Steel weight calculation formula**

• Formula: length(m)×across width(mm)×across width(mm)×0.0065

**20. Copper Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: dia.(mm)×dia.(mm)×length(m)×0.00698

**21. Brass Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: dia.(mm)×dia.(mm)×length(m)×0.00668

**22. Aluminum Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: dia.(mm)×dia.(mm)×length(m)×0.0022

**23. Square Copper Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: width(mm)×width(mm)×length(m)×0.0089

**24. Square Brass Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: width(mm)×width(mm)×length(m)×0.0085

**25. Square Aluminum Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: width(mm)×width(mm)×length(m)×0.0028

**26. Hexagonal Copper Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: across width(mm)×across width(mm)×length(m)×0.0077

**27. Hexagonal Brass Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: width(mm)×across width(mm)×length(m)×0.00736

**28. Hexagonal Aluminum Rod weight calculation formula**

• Formula: across width(mm)×across width(mm)×length(m)×0.00242

**29. Aluminum Plate weight calculation formula**

• Formula: thickness(mm)×width(mm)×length(m)×0.00171

**30. Aluminum Pipe weight calculation formula**

• Formula: thickness(mm)×(O.D(mm)-thickness(mm))×length(m)×0.00879

Accurate weight calculation of metal materials is crucial for various industrial applications, yet several factors can introduce errors. Understanding these sources is essential for precise engineering and cost estimation. The following are key points to consider:

Density Variations: The accuracy of material density is paramount in weight calculations. Density can vary due to alloy composition, manufacturing processes, and even within the same batch of materials. For instance, the density of steel can range from 7.75 to 8.05 g/cm³ depending on its carbon content and alloying elements. Using a generic density value instead of the specific grade’s density can lead to significant errors, especially in large-scale projects.

Dimensional Tolerances: Manufacturing processes inherently produce components with dimensional variations within specified tolerances. These deviations from nominal dimensions directly impact weight calculations. For example:

- Seamless steel pipes typically have tolerances of ±1% on outside diameter and ±12.5% on wall thickness for standard grades.
- Hot-rolled structural steel I-beams often have a permissible weight tolerance of +2.5% to -2.5% according to ASTM A6/A6M standards.

Thermal Expansion Effects: Temperature fluctuations can significantly affect material dimensions and, consequently, weight measurements. The linear thermal expansion coefficient (α) varies among metals:

- Aluminum: α ≈ 23.1 × 10⁻⁶ /°C
- Steel: α ≈ 11.7 × 10⁻⁶ /°C
- Copper: α ≈ 16.6 × 10⁻⁶ /°C

These differences become critical when calculating weights for high-temperature applications or when precise measurements are taken in varying environmental conditions.

Theoretical vs. Actual Weight Discrepancies: Even under ideal conditions, theoretical weight calculations may deviate from actual weights due to factors such as:

- Surface roughness and finish
- Internal microstructure variations
- Presence of residual stresses
- Minor impurities or inclusions

Typically, the discrepancy between theoretical and actual weights falls within 0.2% to 0.7% for standard metal products. However, this range can increase for custom or complex geometries.

Material Processing Effects: Various manufacturing processes can alter the material’s weight distribution:

- Welding can add filler material weight
- Machining operations remove material
- Surface treatments like galvanization or anodizing add thin layers of material

These factors, often overlooked in theoretical calculations, can contribute to weight discrepancies, especially in fabricated assemblies.

By accounting for these potential sources of error, engineers and manufacturers can improve the accuracy of their weight calculations, leading to more precise material planning, cost estimation, and structural design in metal fabrication projects.

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