Metal Expansion Formulas: Expert Insights & Coefficients | MachineMFG

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Metal Expansion Formulas: Expert Insights & Coefficients

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1. Table of Coefficients for Thermal Expansion in Metal Materials

Material Coefficient of Thermal ExpansionLengthTemperature Variation 
*10-6/℃
Mild Steel11.71001000.0000010.117
NAK8012.51002000.0000010.25
SKD6110.81003000.0000010.324
SKH5110.11004000.0000010.404
Hard Alloy V4061005000.0000010.3
SUS440C10.21001000.0000010.102
Oxygen-Free Steel C102017.61005000.0000010.88
6/4 Brass C280120.81006000.0000011.248
Beryllium Copper C172017.11007000.0000011.197
Aluminum A110023.61004750.0000010.30267
Hard Aluminum A707523.61005000.0000011.18
Aluminum Alloy23.81003500.0000010.833
Pure Aluminum231003500.0000010.805
Titanium8.41005000.000001 
Gray Cast Iron91003500.0000010.315
General Cast Iron10.5100500.0000010.0525
Cast Iron10.5100500.0000010.0525
General Carbon Steel11.51002000.0000010.23
Martensitic Stainless Steel1.011002000.0000010.0202
Austenitic Stainless Steel1.61002000.0000010.032
Stainless Steel14.4-161002000.000001#VALUE!
Chromium Steel11.51000200.0000010.23
Nickel Steel141002000.0000010.28
Copper18.51002000.0000010.37
Bronze17.51002000.0000010.35
Brass18.41002000.0000010.368
Phosphor Bronze15.21002000.0000010.304
Chromium6.21002000.0000010.124
Lead29.31002000.0000010.586
Tin26.71002000.0000010.534
Zinc361002000.0000010.72
Magnesium261002000.0000010.52
Tungsten4.51002000.0000010.09
Titanium10.81002000.0000010.216
Nickel131002000.0000010.26
Cadmium411002000.000001 
Manganese231002000.0000010.46
Beryllium12.31002000.0000010.246
Germanium61002000.0000010.12
Iridium6.51002000.0000010.13
Molybdenum5.21002000.0000010.104
Platinum91002000.0000010.18
Silver19.51002000.0000010.39
Gold14.21002000.0000010.284
Window Glass7.61002000.0000010.152
Industrial Glass4.51002000.0000010.09
Ordinary Glass7.11002000.0000010.112
Pyrex Glass3.251002000.0000010.065
Glass Ceramic<0.11002000.000001#VALUE!
Porcelain31002000.0000010.06
Brick51002000.0000010.1
Rebar1.21002000.0000010.024
Concrete1.0-1.51002000.000001#VALUE!
Cement6.0-141002000.000001#VALUE!
Granite31002000.0000010.06
Graphite21002000.0000010.04
Nylon1201002000.0000012.4
Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA)851002000.0000011.7
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)801002000.0000011.6
Carbon Fiber (HM 35in Longitudinal)-0.51002000.000001-0.01
Wood81002000.0000010.16
Table Salt401002000.0000010.8
Ice, 0℃511002000.0000011.02

2. Calculation Method for Dimensional Change Caused by Thermal Expansion

Example using material: SKD61

Given:

  • Diameter (d) = 2 mm
  • Length (L) = 100 mm
  • Temperature increase = 100°C

The dimensional change δ can be calculated as follows:

δ = Thermal expansion coefficient * Length * Temperature change

Using the given values:

δ = 10.8 × 10-6 /°C * 100 mm * 100°C= 0.108 mm

Therefore, the dimensional change (δ) caused by the thermal expansion of the SKD61 rod, with a diameter of 2 mm and length of 100 mm, when the temperature increases by 100°C, is 0.108 mm.

3. Linear Thermal Expansion Coefficient 

Metal NamesElement SymbolsLinear Thermal Expansion Coefficient 
BerylliumBe12.3
Antimony Sb10.5
CopperCu17.5
ChromiumCr6.2
Germanium Ge6.0
IridiumIr6.5
ManganeseMn23.0
NickelNi13.0
SilverAg19.5
AluminumAl23.2
LeadPb29.3
CadmiumCd41.0
IronFe12.2
GoldAu14.2
MagnesiumMg26.0
MolybdenumMo5.2
PlatinumPt9.0
TinSn2.0

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