Universal Coupling

The universal coupling utilizes the characteristics of its mechanism so that the two axes are not on the same axis.

Universal Coupling

In the case of the angle of the axis, the two-axis continuous rotation of the coupled shaft can be realized, and the torque and the movement can be reliably transmitted.

The biggest feature of universal coupling is that its structure has large angular compensation capability, compact structure and high transmission efficiency.

The angles of the two axes of different structural types of universal joints are different, generally between 5° and 45°.

The structure types

Universal couplings come in a variety of structure types, such as:

  • Cross shaft type
  • Ball cage type
  • Ball fork type
  • Bump type
  • Ball type
  • Ball hinge type
  • Ball hinged plunger type
  • Three-pin type
  • Trigeminal type
  • Tripod type
  • Hinge type

The most commonly used is the cross shaft type, followed by the ball cage type.

In practical applications, according to the magnitude of the transmitted torque, it is divided into heavy, medium, light and small type.


There are many types of couplings.

According to the change of the relative position and position of the two axes being connected, it can be divided into:

① Fixed coupling.

Mainly used in places where the two axes require strict alignment and no relative displacement occurs during work.

The structure is generally simple, easy to manufacture, and the instantaneous speed of the two axes is the same.

There are mainly flange couplings, sleeve couplings, and cage couplings.

② Movable coupling.

Mainly used for deflection of two axes or relative displacement in work.

According to the method of compensating the displacement, it can be further divided into a rigid movable coupling and an elastic movable coupling.

The rigid movable coupling is compensated by the movable joint formed between the working parts of the coupling with a certain direction or several directions of motion, such as dental coupling (allowing axial displacement), cross groove coupling (for connecting two shafts with parallel displacement or angular displacement), universal joint (for large deflection angles of two shafts or large angular displacement during operation), gear coupling (allow integrated displacement), chain coupling (allowing radial displacement), etc.

The elastic movable coupling (referred to as elastic coupling) utilizes the elastic deformation of the elastic element to compensate the deflection and displacement of the two shafts.

At the same time, the elastic element also has cushioning and damping properties, such as serpentine spring coupling, radial multi-layer leaf spring coupling, elastic ring bolt coupling, nylon bolt coupling, rubber sleeve coupling etc.

Some of the couplings have been standardized.

When selecting, first select the appropriate type according to the work requirements, then calculate the torque and speed according to the diameter of the shaft, then find the applicable model from the relevant manual, and finally make the necessary check for some key parts.

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