Vertical Lathe

Vertical lathes can be broadly classified into two categories: single column and double column.

Small vertical lathes typically have a single column design, while larger ones are constructed with double columns.

A key characteristic of the vertical lathe is its vertical orientation of the main shaft.

Other notable features of the vertical lathe include: a horizontal plane for the workbench, which facilitates the installation and adjustment of workpieces; a worktable that is supported by rigid guide rails for stable cutting; several tool holders that can be changed quickly; and high processing accuracy, with a potential to reach IT9-IT8 and surface roughness of Ra 3.2-1.6um.

The primary parameter used to measure a vertical lathe is its maximum turning diameter (D).


The vertical lathe is primarily utilized for processing large and heavy workpieces with a large diameter and short length, as well as workpieces that cannot be easily clamped on horizontal lathes.

When the swing diameter is sufficient, workpieces that are too heavy to be clamped on a horizontal lathe can pose a challenge. Their weight can negatively impact machining accuracy. The vertical lathe is a solution to these problems.


(1) Introduction

Vertical lathes are large-scale mechanical machines used to machine large and heavy-duty workpieces with large radial dimensions, small axial dimensions, and complex shapes, such as discs, wheels, sleeves, and other cylindrical surfaces, end faces, conical surfaces, cylindrical holes, conical holes, and more.

Additionally, with the use of additional devices, the vertical lathe can also be used for machining, grinding, milling, and shaping spheroidal and contoured surfaces.

Compared to horizontal lathes, the workpiece on a vertical lathe is clamped on the inside of the clamp decoration, whereas the workpiece on a horizontal lathe is clamped on the outside.

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The vertical orientation of the spindle axis and the horizontal plane of the tabletop in the vertical lathe make it easier to clamp and align workpieces.

This design reduces the load on the spindle and bearings, which allows the vertical lathe to maintain its working accuracy over a longer period of time.

(2) Structural characteristics

The main gearbox of the CJ5710 fixed beam vertical lathe operates via hydraulic shifting. Table speed selection is made through a manual rotary valve and is controlled through electro-hydraulic operation.

The vertical tool holder is equipped with a hydraulic system that includes a pressure maintaining device. The beam clamping mechanism uses a spring for clamping and hydraulic pressure for release.

The machine is equipped with a digital display device for easy reading. The main gearbox, table spindle support, and transmission are automatically lubricated for maintenance purposes.

Several key components are adjustable, including the main drive belt tension, spindle bearing clearance, vertical ram nut clearance, and beam clamping force.

The feeding mechanism is equipped with a safety device for added protection.

The beam of the CJ5710 fixed beam vertical lathe is fixed without stroke and does not have a side tool holder.

Operating procedure

(1) Seriously do the work:

The workpiece with a matte surface must not be placed directly on the work surface and must be supported by a horn or a spiral top. It is strictly prohibited to use the work surface for other purposes, such as hammering or welding the workpiece.

When aligning the workpiece, only a low-speed jog of the table is allowed for the alignment process. High-speed operation is not permitted.

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Starting and stopping the workbench must only be done manually, using the hand switch. It is strictly prohibited to use the foot switch.

When the table is rotated, the beam should not be lifted and the tool holder should not be moved quickly.

When moving the beam, first loosen the clamping device, then clamp it immediately after the movement. After each time the beam is lowered, it should be raised slightly to eliminate any gap between the screw and the nut.

Long-term extension of the straight turret or side turret ram is not allowed during gravity cutting processing. When using the vertical turret for processing, especially for gravity cutting, the girders should be positioned as close as possible to the work position.

During interrupted cutting, the amount of feed and the table speed must be reduced.

The joystick must be pushed to the specified position during shifting. If the gears are not properly engaged, they should be adjusted through jogging after the work is completed. It is not allowed to force the workers’ table “open and stop” handle.

(2) After completing work, there should be two vertical tool holders. The vertical tool holders should be symmetrically positioned at both ends of the beam. For machines with a vertical tool holder, it should be parked in the center of the beam. The side tool holder should be moved to the lowest position on the column.

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