With the emergence of fiber laser technology, laser cutting machine has occupied an important position in the field of sheet metal processing.
In the process of workpiece processing of laser cutting machine, due to high-temperature ablation, more smoke and dust will be produced, which will pollute some precision parts of the equipment.
At the same time, smoke and dust will also have an adverse impact on the health of operators.
If the cutting dust is not treated, it will seriously affect the service life and cutting performance of the laser cutting machine, so the dust removal system of the laser cutting machine is particularly important.
The dust removal system device of general laser cutting machine is designed as an overall exhaust structure with a large cavity.
In order to meet the needs of environmental protection, a high-power dust collector needs to be used, which covers a large area and has complex pipeline installation.
It is easy to produce unsealing and air leakage, resulting in poor exhaust effect.
During actual work, the smoke and dust generated by the cutting machine cannot be exhausted in time, which has an impact on the user’s working environment.
One solution is that at the lower part of the worktable of the laser cutting machine, a partition is used to separate into several chambers with equal geometric dimensions arranged longitudinally and the main air suction duct in the front, and the main air suction duct is connected with the dust collector;
Valves are set between each chamber and the main air suction duct, and the machine control valve controls the cylinder through the air inlet pipe and air outlet pipe;
A hopper is set in the small room, the end plates are welded at both ends for sealing, and several ventilation holes are opened at the lower part of both sides of the hopper.
The ventilation process of the system is controlled through the opening and closing of the valve.
This method saves land and improves the dust removal effect.
The device of another solution includes the main body, the main box and the control cabinet.
A dust removal cover is set to absorb all the smoke and dust generated during the operation of the laser cutting machine, which can ensure the clarity of the working line of sight and improve the working efficiency.
During the operation, the dust removal cover can also ensure that the residue will not splash everywhere, protect the safety of operators, improve a layer of protection guarantee, and improve the popularity and applicability of the device.
When selecting laser cutting machine, although dust removal system is not the most important consideration, efficient dust removal system is an important condition to ensure normal production, which can not be ignored.
However, efficient production efficiency brings about an impact on the environment.
Now it is in the period of strict investigation of environmental protection, especially for production-oriented enterprises. Therefore, a device with good environmental performance often has great advantages.
When working, the fiber laser cutting machine will not produce a large amount of smoke and dust like the traditional plasma cutting method.
The optical fiber laser cutting machine has a special dust removal device, which will directly transport the collected smoke and dust to the smoke and dust filtration and purification equipment, and then discharge it after unified filtration and purification to meet the standard.
The smoke and dust generated by cutting is basically formed below the workpiece notch.
Therefore, in order to save equipment investment and improve the exhaust efficiency, only the area in the cutting process is dust collected, and an air outlet is opened on the side of the optical fiber laser cutting machine.
This structure is relatively simple and has good dust removal effect, which is widely used.
After extensive experiments, we have come to a set of dust collection structure that can effectively reduce the smoke and dust in the laser processing process.
The mechanism includes an air purification dust collector that can effectively adsorb the fine particles in the air flow.
The dust collector is connected with the laser cutting machine through a 250mm diameter dust collection pipe.
The dust collector extracts the air in the laser cutting machine through the dust collection pipe, and then filters and purifies the extracted air.
At the same time, discharge clean air.
At present, most of the laser cutting machine manufacturers in the market can design and manufacture the laser dust removal system according to the above steps, but after the user’s on-site use, it is found that the dust removal effect of the laser cutting machine is not good, and the smoke and dust produced by cutting can not be adsorbed and purified through the purification dust collector according to the expected situation.
The visible cutting smoke and dust are scattered in the equipment, affecting the precision transmission device, reduce the machining accuracy of the machine tool, and even the cutting smoke will spread to the whole workshop, threatening the health of equipment users and polluting the environment.
The root cause of the above phenomenon is that although the dust collector extracts a lot of air in the machine tool, the extracted air can not take away the cutting smoke and dust we want it to take away.
Therefore, even if we spend a lot of energy designing the dust suction pipe in the machine tool, due to some design reasons and some processing and assembly reasons, the work of the dust removal system is twice the result with half the effort, and the dust removal effect is not ideal.
Methods to improve the duct removal efficiency
In view of the above facts, we have done a lot of tests and summarized the following methods, which can effectively improve the dust removal efficiency of the dust removal system:
Improve the sealing performance of dust removal system.
The suction air volume provided by the dust collector is certain, so reducing the overall sealing performance of the dust removal system is bound to improve the suction air volume of the specific suction outlet, so as to improve the dust removal efficiency of the system.
The dust collection system includes the following parts: an air purification dust collector, a dust collection pipe, the dust collection pipe in the machine tool, and the controllable opening and closing air suction outlets in each partition of the machine tool.
The unsealed links that can affect the dust collection efficiency are mainly the sealing of the dust collection pipeline itself and the sealing of each suction outlet.
At present, most of the air ducts on both sides of the machine body are welded as a part of the machine body.
At the same time, most of the air ducts are welded on both sides of the machine body.
The difficulty of this method is to ensure that the welding between pipes must be fully welded to prevent air leakage.
The sealing performance of the air suction outlet is that the processing area needs to be divided into several zones according to the position of the laser head.
For the zones not processed by the laser head, the dust suction port needs to be sealed.
Reduce the right angle transition at the pipe connection in the machine tool.
Taking the processing format of 3m × 1.5m as an example, at present, most manufacturers are designed to set pipes under the side worktables of the left and right fuselages.
In this way, the partition of the air suction outlet can be divided into the left and right along the Y direction, which can theoretically improve the dust suction efficiency, but this approach will inevitably produce right angle connected pipes in the fuselage.
The right angle connected pipes are not conducive to the flow of air and will weaken the wind force at the air suction outlet.
In addition, while considering the design of the fuselage, the cross-sectional area of the pipeline from the dust collector to the suction outlet inside the fuselage should be increased as much as possible.
A large pipeline cross-section can reduce the resistance encountered when the air flows in the pipeline and minimize the loss of the wind generated by the dust collector when reaching the suction outlet.
Improve the sealing performance of the machine tool itself.
Theoretically, the final air extracted by the dust collector comes from the inside of the machine tool, but the dust collection efficiency is not ideal due to the sealing performance of the machine tool itself.
In practical work, the smoke and dust produced by laser head processing comes from the plate on the workbench.
Under the influence of the high concentrated energy of the laser beam, the generated metal vapor condenses into small particles of metal dust when encountering the surrounding cold air.
At this time, these metal dust are mainly distributed near the workbench.
We hope that the suction negative pressure generated by the suction outlet can take away these metal dust.
The actual situation is that due to the poor sealing performance of the machine tool itself, the gap between the discharge truck and the machine body at the lower part of the machine tool is too large, and the gap between the machine body and the ground is too large.
At the same time, the suction port is close to the ground and the discharge truck, resulting in most of the suction air entering the machine tool from the gap between the machine body and the ground and being brought to the air purification dust collector by the suction system.
Finally, the suction system is doing useless work.
Do a good job of the shield and top cover of the machine tool.
The top cover of the machine tool is also a crucial link of the dust collection system. Cutting gas is required for laser head processing.
Part of the cutting gas will diffuse to the upper space of the workbench with metal dust, which is generally not easy to be taken away by the dust collection system.
At this time, the top cover of the machine tool will fix these dust in the machine tool, and then under the influence of gravity, this part of dust will eventually be brought out of the machine tool by the dust suction system.
The implementation of the above design ideas can effectively improve the dust collection effect of laser cutting machine tools.
Our machine tools not only create value for customers, but also more in line with the concept of green and sustainable development.