14 Essential Components of a Laser Cutting Machine

Components of Laser Cutting Machine

Laser cutters mainly consist of a main machine, light, and electricity. The system is comprised of a mechanical component, laser generator, reflector path, and CNC controller (electrical control).

13 Components of the Laser Cutter

The auxiliary equipment for laser cutters includes:

  • stabilizer power supply
  • water chiller
  • gas cylinder
  • air compressor
  • gas storage tank
  • cooling dryer
  • filter
  • air cleaner
  • slag discharging machine

Let’s dive into it and I will split the laser cutter into 13 parts and explain each one in detail.

1. Laser Cutter Frame

Laser cutter frame

The mechanical part of the laser cutter is responsible for the movement in the X, Y, and Z-axes, including the cutting work platform. The stability of the machine tool is crucial for fiber laser cutting machines, as it directly impacts the cutting precision.

Currently, the most common machine tools in the market are the gantry type, cantilever type, and beam type.

Each type of machine tool has its own functions, such as beam type machine tools being mainly used by large manufacturers for material cutting, and 3D fiber laser cutting being mainly used in the automotive industry.

2. Laser Generator

Laser generator

A device that produces a laser light source is known as a laser generator. The laser generator is the main power source of laser equipment, similar to the engine in a car and is the most expensive component of fiber laser cutting machines.

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Currently, the imported fiber laser generator brands in the market include German IPG, ROFIN, and British SPI, among others.

With advancements in technology, domestic laser brands such as Raycus and Max have also emerged, gaining recognition in the market for their high cost-performance ratio.

3. Lenses

Reflector path

The laser lens is the most commonly used component in fiber laser cutting equipment. Various optical devices contain laser lenses, each serving a different purpose, such as full-reflection lenses, semi-reflection lenses, and focusing lenses.

The quality of the lens directly impacts the output power of the laser, thereby affecting the overall performance of the machine. While imported lenses have a longer lifespan and better cutting effect compared to domestic lenses, they are much more expensive.

4. CNC System

CNC system

The control system is the primary operating system of the fiber laser cutting machine, which mainly controls the movements of the X, Y, and Z axes and regulates the output power of the laser. Its quality determines the stability of the machine’s operating performance.

The precision and cutting effect can be effectively improved through accurate control of the software.

5. Regulated Power Supply

Regulated power supply

The connection between the laser generator, the laser cutter, and the power supply system serves mainly to prevent interference from the external power network.

6. Laser Cutting Head

Cutting head

The cutting head is the laser output device of a fiber laser cutting machine, consisting of a nozzle, a focusing lens, and a focus tracking system.

The cutting head drive device, which consists of a servo motor, screw rod, or gear, moves the cutting head along the Z-axis as programmed.

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However, the height of the laser cutting head must be adjusted and controlled depending on the material, thickness, and cutting method being used.

7. Control Platform

Control platform

The process of controlling the whole cutting device.

8. Motor

The motor of the laser cutting machine is a crucial component of the motion system. The performance of the motor directly impacts the processing quality and production efficiency of the product.

Currently, the commonly used motors are the stepping motor and servo motor, which are selected based on the industry and processing object’s requirements.

Stepping motor: It has a quick start-up speed, responsive, and is suitable for engraving and cutting processing. They are affordable, with many brands offering different performance options.

Servo motor: It has a fast movement speed, smooth operation, high load-bearing capacity, and stable performance. It is ideal for industries and products with high processing requirements, providing smooth edge processing and fast cutting speed, though it is more expensive.

9. Water Chiller

Water chiller

The Cooling System is used to cool the laser generator of a fiber laser cutting machine. The laser generator converts electrical energy into light energy, with a conversion rate of 20% in the case of a CO2 laser. The remaining energy is converted into heat.

The cooling water system removes the excess heat to keep the laser generator functioning properly.

The chiller also cools the external optical path reflector and focusing mirror to ensure stable beam transmission quality and prevent lens deformation or cracking due to overheating.

10. Gas Cylinders

Gas cylinders

The laser cutter’s working medium and auxiliary gas cylinders are included.

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These gases serve as industrial supplements for laser oscillation and as auxiliary gases for the cutting head’s operation.

11. Air Compressor, Gas Storage Tank

Air compressor, gas storage tank

Provide and store compressed air.

12. Air Cooling Dryer, Filter

Air cooling dryer, filter

The air supply system is used to provide clean and dry air to the laser generator and laser beam path, ensuring the normal operation of the pathway and reflectors.

13. Dust Extractor

Dust extractor

The smoke and dust generated during the fabrication process must be filtered and treated to meet environmental protection standards.

14. Slag Discharge Machine

Slag discharge machine

Eliminate the leftover materials and wastes generated during processing.

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