Classification by purpose
There are many kinds of turning tools, which can be divided into:
Cylindrical turning tool:
According to the main deflection angle, there are 95 degrees (for semi finishing and finishing of outer circle and end face), 45 degrees (for outer circle and end face, mainly for rough turning), 75 degrees (mainly for rough turning of outer circle), 93 degrees (mainly for profiling finishing) and 90 degrees (for rough and finish turning of outer circle).
The outer grooving turning tool is mainly used for outer circle grooving and cutting, and the inner grooving turning tool is mainly used for inner groove processing
Thread turning tool:
Thread turning tools mainly include external thread turning tools and internal thread turning tools, of which external thread turning tools are mainly used for external thread processing and internal thread turning tools are mainly used for internal thread processing.
External thread turning tool
Internal thread turning tool
Inner hole turning tool:
It is mainly used for inner hole processing
According to the structure, it is divided into:
Integral type: the main body of the tool is made of one blank, which is not divided, and is easy to grind into sharp cutting edges. The tool has good rigidity.
It is suitable for small turning tools and non-ferrous metal turning tools.
Related reading: Ferrous vs Non-ferrous Metals
Welding type: it is connected by welding method and divided into tool head and tool rod.
It has compact structure and convenient manufacture.
It is suitable for all kinds of turning tools, especially small tools.
Machine clamp type: the blade is fixed on the tool bar with a mechanical holder. The blade can be replaced after being blunt.
It is a commonly used tool for NC lathe. The tool bar is reused.
Special type: such as compound cutter, damping cutter, etc.
Classification by turning tool material
High speed steel tool:
It is made of high-speed steel and can be polished continuously. It is a general tool for rough machining and semi finish machining.
Cemented carbide cutting tool:
The blade is made of cemented carbide and is used to cut cast iron, non-ferrous metals, plastics, chemical fiber, graphite, glass, stone and ordinary steel. It can also be used to cut refractory steel, stainless steel, high strength steel, tool steel and other difficult materials. “
The blade is inlaid with diamond.
It has the advantages of high hardness and wear resistance, low friction coefficient, high elastic modulus, high thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion coefficient and low affinity with non-ferrous metals.
It can be used for the precision processing of non-metallic brittle and hard materials such as graphite, high wear-resistant materials, composites, high silicon aluminum alloy and other ductile non-ferrous metal materials.
Such as cubic boron nitride cutting tools and ceramic cutting tools, are developing in the direction of rough machining and intermittent cutting of high hardness alloy cast iron.
Mounting requirements of four station tool rest
1. The turning tool tip shall be at the same height as the rotation center of the workpiece.
Common methods of tool tip to center height: in the first step, when installing the turning tool, make the tool tip equal to the top of the tailstock;
The second step is trial cutting the end face.
2. The length of the turning tool extending out of the tool holder shall be appropriate.
The turning tool is installed on the tool holder.
Generally, the length extending from the tool holder is 1-1.5 times of the thickness of the tool bar. It should not be too long. If the extension is too long, the rigidity of the tool bar will become worse and it is easy to produce vibration during cutting.
3. The turning tool sizing block of NC lathe shall be flat, and the smaller the number, the better, and the sizing block shall be aligned with the tool holder to prevent vibration.
4. The turning tool of NC lathe shall be pressed on the tool holder with at least two screws and tightened one by one in turn. The tightening force shall be appropriate.
5. The center line of turning tool bar of NC lathe shall be perpendicular to the feed direction, otherwise the values of main deflection angle and auxiliary deflection angle will change.
If the NC machine tool is different, the loading and unloading method is different.