# CO2 Gas Shielded Welding: Ideal Current and Voltage Control

CO2 gas shielded welding involves melting the welding wire using welding voltage as the energy source.

The welding wire melts at a faster rate as the voltage is increased.

The welding current is determined by balancing the wire feeding speed with the melting speed.

## 1. Welding current

The selection of welding current should be based on various welding conditions such as plate thickness, welding position, welding speed, material, and other relevant parameters.

For carbon dioxide gas shielded welding, it is crucial to ensure that the welding current matches the welding voltage, and that the wire feeding speed and welding voltage are consistent with the melting capacity of the welding wire. This is necessary to maintain the stability of the arc length during the welding process.

For a given welding wire, increasing the cable size results in a higher wire feeding speed.

Similarly, when the current remains constant, using a thinner welding wire will result in a faster wire feeding speed.

## 2. Welding voltage

Welding voltage, also known as arc voltage, is responsible for providing the necessary welding energy.

A higher arc voltage translates to greater welding energy, faster melting of the welding wire, and increased welding current.

Arc voltage can be calculated by subtracting the loss voltage of the welding circuit from the output voltage of the welder. This can be expressed using the following formula:

Uarc = Uoutput – Uloss

Assuming that the welding machine has been installed in compliance with the installation requirements, any voltage loss is primarily due to cable extension.

In situations where welding cables need to be extended, the output voltage of the welding machine can be adjusted according to the table below:

## 3. Setting of welding voltage

Choose the appropriate welding current based on the plate thickness and welding conditions, and then calculate the welding voltage using the following formula:

＜ 300A: welding voltage=(0.05 × Welding current+14 ± 2) V

＞ 300A: welding voltage=(0.05 × Welding current+14 ± 3) V

Example 1: If the welding current is 200A, the welding voltage is calculated as follows:

Welding voltage=(0.05 × 200+14 ± 2）

=(10+14 ± 2) V

=(24 ± 2) V

Example 2: If the welding current 400A is selected, the welding voltage is calculated as follows:

Welding voltage=(0.05 × 400+14 ± 3）

=(20+14 ± 3) V

=(34 ± 3) V

## 4. Influence of welding voltage on welding effect

When the voltage is too high, the arc length increases, leading to larger spatter particles that can easily produce pores. Additionally, the weld bead becomes wider, while the solution depth and surplus height become smaller. This can also result in a “patter! patter!” sound.

Conversely, when the voltage is too low, the spatter increases as the welding wire is inserted into the base metal. Furthermore, the weld bead narrows, and both the solution depth and surplus height increase. This can lead to a “bang! bang! bang!” sound.

Don't forget, sharing is caring! : )
Author

#### Shane

##### Founder of MachineMFG

As the founder of MachineMFG, I have dedicated over a decade of my career to the metalworking industry. My extensive experience has allowed me to become an expert in the fields of sheet metal fabrication, machining, mechanical engineering, and machine tools for metals. I am constantly thinking, reading, and writing about these subjects, constantly striving to stay at the forefront of my field. Let my knowledge and expertise be an asset to your business.

#### Mastering CAD/CAM: Essential Technologies Explained

Basic Concepts of Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is a comprehensive and technically complex system engineering discipline that incorporates diverse fields such as computer [...]

#### Virtual Manufacturing Explained: Concepts & Principles

Concept of Virtual Manufacturing Virtual Manufacturing (VM) is the fundamental realization of the actual manufacturing process on a computer. It utilizes computer simulation and virtual reality technologies, supported by high-performance [...]

#### Understanding Flexible Manufacturing Systems: A Guide

A Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) typically employs principles of systems engineering and group technology. It connects Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools (processing centers), coordinate measuring machines, material transport systems, [...]

#### Exploring 4 Cutting-Edge Nanofabrication Techniques

Just as manufacturing technology plays a crucial role in various fields today, nanofabrication technology holds a key position in the realms of nanotechnology. Nanofabrication technology encompasses numerous methods including mechanical [...]

#### Ultra-Precision Machining: Types and Techniques

Ultra-precision machining refers to precision manufacturing processes that achieve extremely high levels of accuracy and surface quality. Its definition is relative, changing with technological advancements. Currently, this technique can achieve [...]

#### Choosing the Right CNC Fixture: Types and Tips

Currently, machining can be categorized into two groups based on production batch: Among these two categories, the first one accounts for about 70-80% of the total output value of machining [...]

#### Top 4 Specialty Processing Methods in Modern Engineering

This article mainly introduces several mature special processing methods. I. Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) EDM is a method of machining conductive materials by utilizing the phenomenon of electrical corrosion during [...]

#### What Is CNC Machining? Types, Pros, Cons and Machining Steps

What is CNC machining? Numerical Control (NC) refers to the method of controlling the movement and processing operations of machine tools using digitized information. Numerical Control Machine Tools, often abbreviated [...]

#### Exploring High-Speed Cutting: Tech Overview & Application

Cutting machining remains the most prominent method of mechanical processing, holding a significant role in mechanical manufacturing. With the advancement of manufacturing technology, cutting machining technology underwent substantial progress towards [...]

#### Minimize Welding Stress: Causes and Elimination

1. What is welding stress Welding stress refers to the stress generated during the welding process in welded components. This stress is caused by the thermal process of welding and [...]

#### Top 7 New Engineering Materials: What You Need to Know

Advanced materials refer to those recently researched or under development that possess exceptional performance and special functionalities. These materials are of paramount significance to the advancement of science and technology, [...]

#### Metal Expansion Methods: A Comprehensive Guide

Bulge forming is suitable for various types of blanks, such as deep-drawn cups, cut tubes, and rolled conical weldments. Classification by bulge forming medium Bulge forming methods can be categorized [...]