71 Different Types Of Metals: The Complete List

Metal is a kind of material with luster (i.e. strong reflection of visible light), ductility, easy conductivity and heat conduction.

The vast majority of metal elements on the earth exist in nature in a combined state.

This is because the chemical properties of most metals are more active, and only a few metals such as gold and silver exist in free state.

Different Types Of Metals

In this article, we list 71 different metals, including almost all the metals in the periodic table of chemical elements. In addition, we also introduce the use and some specifications of these metals in detail.

Let’s dive right into it.

Ferrous metal:

Iron, chromium and manganese.

Iron

Iron is a metal element with atomic number 26.

Chemical formula of iron: Fe;

English Name: iron.

The average relative atomic mass is 55.845.

Chromium

Chromium, chemical symbol Cr, atomic number 24, belongs to group ⅥB in the periodic table of elements.

The element name comes from Greek, which originally means “color”, because chromium compounds have color.

The single substance is steel gray metal, which is the hardest metal in nature.

The content of chromium in the earth’s crust is 0.01%, ranking 17th.

Free natural chromium is extremely rare and mainly exists in chromite.

Manganese

Manganese, chemical element, element symbol Mn, atomic number 25;

Manganese is a kind of gray white, hard, brittle and shiny transition metal.

Pure metallic manganese is a slightly softer metal than iron.

Manganese containing a small amount of impurities is firm and brittle, and will be oxidized in wet places.

Manganese widely exists in nature.

The content of manganese in soil is 0.25%.

Tea, wheat and hard shell fruits contain more manganese.

Non ferrous metals:

Aluminium

Aluminum is a metal element with the element symbol al. It is a silver white light metal. It has ductility.

Commodities are often made into rod, sheet, foil, powder, strip and filament.

It can form an oxide film to prevent metal corrosion in humid air.

When heated in air, aluminum powder can burn violently and emit dazzling white flame.

It is easily soluble in dilute sulfuric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions, but difficult to dissolve in water.

Relative density 2.70.

Melting point 660 ℃.

Boiling point 2327 ℃.

Aluminum is the most abundant metal element in the earth’s crust, ranking third only to oxygen and silicon.

Magnesium

Magnesium is a metal element, and the element symbol is mg.

British David reduced magnesium oxide with potassium in 1808 to make metallic magnesium.

It is a silver white light alkaline earth metal with active chemical properties. It can react with acid to produce hydrogen and has certain ductility and heat dissipation.

Magnesium is widely distributed in nature and is one of the essential elements of human body.

Potassium

Potassium (kalium), element symbol K, atomic number 19, is located in group IA of the fourth cycle of the periodic table of elements and belongs to alkali metal elements.

Potassium is a silvery white soft metal, waxy, which can be cut with a knife.

It has low melting boiling point, low density than water, and extremely active chemical properties (more active than sodium).

Sodium

Sodium is a metal element. The element symbol is Na and its English name is sodium.

In the periodic table, it is located in the third cycle and group IA.

It is the representative of alkali metal elements.

It has soft texture and can react with water to produce sodium hydroxide and release hydrogen. It has more active chemical properties.

Calcium

Calcium is a metal element with atomic number of 20 and symbol Ca.

It is located in the 4th cycle and IIA group in the periodic table of elements.

Calcium is a silver white solid at room temperature and has active chemical properties.

Therefore, it mostly exists in the form of ions or compounds in nature.

Strontium

Strontium is a chemical element with the element symbol Sr.

It was discovered in 1791-1792. When the British chemist and doctor hope studied the ore, he was sure that it contained a new soil, so he named it strontia (strontium soil) from its producing area strontian.

Strontium is a silver white alkaline earth metal with yellow luster.

It is used to manufacture alloys, photocells, analytical chemical reagents, fireworks, etc.

The isotope strontium-90 is radioactive and can be used as a radiation source with a βhalf-life of 28.1 years.

Barium

Barium (barium), alkaline earth metal element, chemical element symbol Ba, is located in the sixth cycle IIA group in the periodic table.

It is a soft alkaline earth metal with silver white luster and is the most active element in alkaline earth metals.

Because the chemical properties of barium are very active, barium has never been found in nature.

The most common minerals of barium in nature are barite (barium sulfate) and witherite (barium carbonate), both of which are insoluble in water.

Barium was recognized as a new element in 1774, but it was not summarized as a metal element until shortly after the invention of electrolysis in 1808.

Barium compounds are used to make green in fireworks (based on the principle of flame reaction).

Copper

Copper is not only a metal element, but also a transition element.

The chemical symbol is Cu, English copy, atomic number 29.

Pure copper is a soft metal.

When the surface is just cut, it is red orange with metallic luster, and the simple substance is purplish red.

Good ductility, high thermal conductivity and conductivity, so it is the most commonly used material in cables and electrical and electronic components.

It can also be used as building materials and can form many kinds of alloys.

Copper alloy has excellent mechanical properties and low resistivity, among which bronze and brass are the most important.

In addition, copper is also a durable metal, which can be recycled many times without damaging its mechanical properties.

Lead

Lead is a metallic chemical element with the element symbol Pb.

Its atomic number is 82 and its atomic weight is 207.2.

It is the non radioactive element with the largest atomic weight.

Metal lead is face centered cubic crystal.

Metal lead is a kind of corrosion-resistant heavy non-ferrous metal material.

Lead has the advantages of low melting point, high corrosion resistance, difficult penetration of X rays and γ rays, good plasticity and so on.

It is often processed into plates and pipes.

It is widely used in industrial departments such as chemical industry, cable, battery and radiation protection.

Zinc

Zinc (zinc) is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Zn and its atomic number is 30.

It is located in the 4th cycle and Group IIB in the periodic table of chemical elements.

Zinc is a light gray transition metal and the fourth “common” metal.

In modern industry, zinc is an irreplaceable metal in battery manufacturing.

Tin

The English name of stannum is tin, and the element symbol is Sn.

It is a kind of metal element and inorganic matter. The common form of white tin is a low melting point metal with silver white luster.

It is divalent or tetravalent in compounds and will not be oxidized by air at room temperature.

In nature, it mainly exists in the form of dioxide (cassiterite) and various sulfides (such as sulfur cassiterite).

Cobalt

Cobalt, the element symbol Co, is a silvery white ferromagnetic metal, with a silver white surface and a slight light pink color.

It is located in the fourth cycle and group VIII in the periodic table, with atomic number of 27 and atomic weight of 58.9332.

It is a close packed hexagonal crystal, and the common valence is + 2 and + 3.

Cobalt is a shiny steel gray metal, relatively hard and brittle, ferromagnetic, and its magnetism disappears when heated to 1150 ℃.

It does not work with water at room temperature and is stable in humid air.

When heated to more than 300 ℃ in air, COO is oxidized and burned to Co3O4 in white heat.

The fine metal cobalt powder prepared by hydrogen reduction can spontaneously ignite into cobalt oxide in air.

Cobalt is an important raw material for the production of heat-resistant alloy, hard alloy, anti-corrosion alloy, magnetic alloy and various cobalt salts.

Nickel

Nickel is a hard, ductile and ferromagnetic metal, which can be highly polished and corrosion resistant.

Nickel is an iron loving element.

The earth’s core is mainly composed of iron and nickel.

In the crust, the nickel content of iron magnesian rocks is higher than that of aluminosilicate rocks.

For example, the nickel content of peridotite is 1000 times that of granite, and the nickel content of gabbro is 80 times that of granite.

Antimony

Antimony, metallic element, element symbol sb, atomic number 51, silvery white, shiny, hard and brittle metal (often made into rod, block, powder and other shapes).

It has a scaly crystal structure.

It gradually loses its luster in humid air, and burns into white antimony oxide in strong heat.

Soluble in aqua regia and concentrated sulfuric acid.

The relative density is 6.68, the melting point is 630 ℃, the boiling point is 1635 ℃, the atomic radius is 1.28 Å, and the electronegativity is 2.2.

Mercury

Mercury is a chemical element with the element symbol Hg and the 80th place in the periodic table of elements.

It is located in the 6th cycle and Group IIB in the periodic table of chemical elements, commonly known as mercury.

It is the only metal in liquid state at normal temperature and pressure (strictly speaking, gallium (symbol GA, element 31) and cesium (symbol CS, element 55) are also liquid at room temperature (29.76 ℃ and 28.44 ℃) 。

Mercury is a silvery white and shiny heavy liquid with stable chemical properties.

It is insoluble in acid and alkali.

Mercury can evaporate at room temperature. Mercury vapor and mercury compounds are highly toxic (chronic).

Mercury has a long history and is widely used.

Cadmium

Cadmium, heavy non-ferrous metal element, chemical symbol CD, atomic number 481817.

The simple substance is silver white metal, which is an excellent metal for absorbing neutrons. Making rods can slow down the chain fission reaction rate in nuclear reactors, and is very useful in zinc cadmium batteries.

Its sulfide is bright in color and is used to make cadmium yellow pigment.

Bismuth

Bismuth, a metal element with the symbol Bi and atomic number 83, is located in the VA group of the sixth period of the periodic table.

The simple substance is silver white to pink metal, which is brittle and easy to crush, and the chemical properties of bismuth are relatively stable.

Bismuth exists in nature in the form of free metals and minerals.

Gold

Gold (aurum) is a metal element, the element symbol is Au, and the atomic number is 79.

The simple substance (free form) of gold, commonly known as gold, is a precious metal.

It has been used as money, value preservation and jewelry for many centuries.

In nature, gold occurs in the form of simple matter in gold nuggets or gold grains in rocks, underground veins and alluvium.

Gold is also one of the monetary metals.

Gold is a solid at room temperature, with high density, softness, brightness and corrosion resistance.

It is the metal with the best ductility, second only to platinum.

Silver

Silver (argentum) is a kind of transition metal, chemical symbol Ag.

Silver is one of the metals known and used in ancient times.

It is an important precious metal.

Silver exists in nature, but most of it exists in silver ore in the form of chemical state.

The physical and chemical properties of silver are relatively stable, with good thermal and electrical conductivity.

It is soft and malleable. Its reflectance is very high, up to more than 99%. It has many important uses.

Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Pt.

It is one of the precious metals.

Its elemental substance is commonly known as platinum.

It belongs to platinum series elements, with an atomic weight of 195.078, slightly less than that of gold, and an atomic number of 78.

It belongs to transition metals.

Melting point 1772 ℃, boiling point 3827 ℃, density 21.45g/cm3 (20 ℃), relatively soft, with good ductility, thermal conductivity and conductivity.

Sponge platinum is a gray sponge material with large specific surface area and strong absorption capacity for gases (especially hydrogen, oxygen and carbon monoxide).

Powdered platinum black can absorb a large amount of hydrogen.

Ruthenium

Ruthenium is a hard, brittle and light gray multivalent rare metal element.

The element symbol is Ru.

It is a member of platinum group metals.

Its content in the earth’s crust is only one billionth.

It is one of the rarest metals. It has very stable properties and strong corrosion resistance.

It can resist the corrosion of hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid and aqua regia at room temperature.

Ruthenium is the cheapest of the platinum group metals, although other metals such as platinum and palladium are richer than ruthenium.

Rhodium

Rhodium is a silvery white, hard metal with the element symbol Rh.

Rhodium is a platinum element with high reflectivity.

Rhodium metal usually does not form oxides. Molten rhodium absorbs oxygen, but is released during solidification.

Rhodium has a higher melting point and a lower density than platinum.

Rhodium is insoluble in most acids.

It is completely insoluble in nitric acid and slightly soluble in aqua regia.

Palladium

Palladium is the fifth cycle group VIII platinum element with the element symbol Pd.

The elemental substance is silver white transition metal.

It is soft and has good ductility and plasticity.

It can be forged, calendered and drawn.

The massive metal palladium can absorb a large amount of hydrogen, significantly swell the volume, become brittle and even break into fragments.

Osmium

Osmium is a group VIII element in the sixth period of the periodic table of elements, with element symbol OS, atomic number 76 and relative atomic mass 190.23.

It is a heavy platinum group metal and the metal with the highest density known.

Iridium

Iridium, metal element, element symbol Ir, atomic number 77, atomic weight 192.22, element name comes from Latin, originally meaning “Rainbow”.

Iridium content in the earth’s crust is 1 / 10 million, and it is often dispersed in various ores of alluvial and sandy deposits together with platinum series elements.

Beryllium

Beryllium is the second main group element in the second cycle, with atomic number of 4 and element symbol Be.

It is a gray white alkaline earth metal, belonging to hexagonal system, hard and expansible.

Beryllium and its compounds are highly toxic.

Beryllium is an amphoteric metal, which can be dissolved in both acid and alkali.

Beryllium is mainly used in atomic energy reactor materials, aerospace engineering materials, various alloys, ray transmission windows, etc.

Lithium

Lithium is a metal element, the element symbol is Li, and the corresponding elemental substance is silver white soft metal, which is also the metal with the lowest density.

Used in atomic reactors, light alloys and batteries.

Lithium and its compounds are not as typical as other alkali metals, because lithium has a large charge density and a stable helium type double electron layer, which makes lithium easy to polarize other molecules or ions, but it is not easy to polarize itself.

This affects the stability of it and its compounds.

Because the electrode potential is the most negative, Lithium is the most active metal among known elements (including radioactive elements).

Rubidium

Rubidium is a silvery white light metal with the element symbol Rb.

It is soft and waxy, and its chemical properties are more active than potassium.

It is easy to emit electrons under the action of light.

Rubidium acts violently in contact with water to produce hydrogen and rubidium hydroxide.

It is easy to react with oxygen to form complex oxides.

Because the reaction with water releases a large amount of heat, hydrogen can be burned immediately.

Pure metal rubidium is usually stored in sealed glass ampoules.

Cesium

Cesium, element symbol Cs, atomic number 55, is located in the sixth cycle, group IA.

Its elemental substance is a light golden yellow active metal with low melting point.

It is very easy to be oxidized in the air.

It can react violently with water to produce hydrogen and explode.

Cesium has no elemental form in nature, only in the form of salt, which is rarely distributed on land and sea.

Cesium is an important material for manufacturing vacuum devices and photocells.

Radionuclide Cs-137 is one of the radioactive pollution leaked from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan.

Cesium is the most metallic of the known elements (including radioactive elements) (note that it is not metal activity, but lithium is the most active).

Titanium

Titanium is a metal chemical element with chemical symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

It is located in the 4th cycle and IVB group in the periodic table of chemical elements.

It is a silvery white transition metal, which is characterized by light weight, high strength, metallic luster and resistance to wet chlorine corrosion.

However, titanium cannot be used in dry chlorine.

Even dry chlorine with a temperature below 0 ℃ will undergo violent chemical reaction to produce titanium tetrachloride, decompose to produce titanium dichloride, and even burn.

Titanium can maintain reliable stability only when the water content in chlorine is higher than 0.5%.

Titanium is considered a rare metal because it is dispersed in nature and difficult to extract.

But it is relatively rich, ranking tenth among all elements.

Titanium ores mainly include ilmenite and rutile, which are widely distributed in the crust and lithosphere.

Titanium also exists in almost all organisms, rocks, water and soil.

Zirconium

Zirconium is a chemical element, the element symbol Zr, the atomic number is 40, and the simple substance is a high melting point metal, which is light gray.

The surface of zirconium is easy to form an oxide film with luster, so its appearance is similar to that of steel.

It has corrosion resistance and is soluble in hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia.

At high temperature, it can react with non-metallic elements and many metal elements to form solid solution.

Vanadium

Vanadium is a metal element with the element symbol V, silver gray metal. It belongs to VB group in the periodic table of elements, atomic number 23, atomic weight 50.9414, body centered cubic crystal, and common valence is + 5, + 4, + 3, + 2.

Vanadium has a high melting point.

It is a refractory metal.

It is ductile, hard and non-magnetic.

It has the ability to resist hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, and has better resistance to gas, salt and water corrosion than most stainless steel.

Niobium

Niobium, chemical symbol Nb, atomic number 41, is a transition metal element.

Niobium is a shiny gray metal.

High purity niobium metal has high ductility, but it will harden with the increase of impurity content.

Niobium has a very low capture cross section for thermal neutrons, so it is very useful in the nuclear industry.

Tantalum

Tantalum is a metal element with atomic number 73 and chemical symbol Ta.

The elemental substance corresponding to the element is steel gray metal and has high corrosion resistance.

It does not react with hydrochloric acid, concentrated nitric acid and aqua regia under cold and hot conditions.

Tantalum mainly exists in tantalite and coexists with niobium.

Tantalum has moderate hardness and ductility.

It can be pulled into thin wire foil.

Its coefficient of thermal expansion is very small.

Tantalum has excellent chemical properties and high corrosion resistance.

It can be used to make evaporation vessels, etc.

It can also be used as electrode, rectifier and electrolytic capacitor of electron tube.

Medically, it is used to make thin sheets or thin threads to repair damaged tissue.

Although tantalum has strong corrosion resistance, its corrosion resistance is due to the formation of stable tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) protective film on the surface.

Tungsten

Tungsten is a metal element, the element symbol is w, the atomic number is 74, in the VIB group of the sixth period in the periodic table.

Tungsten is mainly hexavalent cation in nature, and its ion radius is 0.68 × 10-10m.

Due to the small radius of W6 + ions, high electricity price and strong polarization ability, it is easy to form complex anions.

Therefore, tungsten is mainly in the form of complex anions [WO4] 2 – and combines with cations such as Fe2 +, Mn2 +, Ca2 + in the solution to form wolframite or scheelite precipitation.

The simple substance is silver white and shiny metal, with high hardness and melting point.

It is not eroded by air at room temperature, and its chemical properties are relatively stable.

It is mainly used to manufacture filaments, high-speed cutting alloy steel and superhard molds, as well as optical instruments and chemical instruments.

China is the largest tungsten storage country in the world.

Molybdenum

Molybdenum, chemical symbol Mo, atomic number 42, is a transition metal element and a necessary trace element for human body, animals and plants.

Molybdenum is a silver white metal, hard and tough.

Various tissues of human body contain molybdenum.

The total amount in human body is about 9mg, and the content is the highest in liver and kidney.

Gallium

Gallium is a gray blue or silver white metal with the element symbol Ga and atomic weight of 69.723.

Gallium has a low melting point but a high boiling point.

Pure liquid gallium has a significant supercooling trend and is easy to oxidize in air to form oxide film.

Indium

Indium is a metal element with element symbol in and atomic number 49.

It is located in group IIIA in the fifth period of the periodic table.

Its simple substance is a silvery white metal with light blue.

It is very soft and can be scored with nails.

It has strong plasticity, ductility and can be pressed into pieces.

Indium metal is mainly used as raw material for manufacturing low melting alloy, bearing alloy, semiconductor, electric light source, etc.

Thallium

Thallium, chemical symbol Tl and atomic number 81, is a group ⅢA element in the sixth period of the periodic table.

It is an associated element with low content in the natural environment.

Thallium dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid and dilute sulfuric acid and rapidly in nitric acid.

Its main compounds are oxides, sulfides, halides, sulfates, etc.

Thallium salts are generally colorless and tasteless crystals, which are dissolved in water to form thallium compounds.

It is more stable in water or paraffin than in air.

Germanium

Germanium is a chemical element with element symbol Ge, atomic number 32 and atomic weight 72.64.

It is located in the 4th cycle and IVA group in the periodic table of chemical elements.

Germanium is a gray white quasi metal, shiny and hard. It belongs to carbon group.

Its chemical properties are similar to those of tin and silicon of the same group.

It is insoluble in water, hydrochloric acid and dilute caustic solution, soluble in aqua regia, concentrated nitric acid or sulfuric acid.

It has amphoteric properties.

Therefore, it is soluble in molten alkali, peroxide alkali, alkali metal nitrate or carbonate and is relatively stable in the air.

In nature, there are five kinds of stable nuclides in germanium: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge and 76Ge.

When it reacts with oxygen above 700 ℃, it generates GeO2.

When it reacts with hydrogen above 1000 ℃, fine germanium can burn in chlorine or bromine. Germanium is an excellent semiconductor, which can be used for detection of high-frequency current and rectification of AC electricity.

In addition, it can be used as infrared optical materials, precision instruments and catalysts. Germanium compounds can be used to make fluorescent plates and various glasses with high refractive index.

Rhenium

Rhenium is a chemical element, chemical symbol re, atomic number 75.

Rhenium is a silvery white heavy metal, which belongs to the sixth periodic transition metal in the periodic table of elements.

It is one of the rarest elements in the earth’s crust, with an average content estimated at one billionth.

It is also one of the elements with the highest melting and boiling points.

Rhenium is a by-product of molybdenum and copper refining process.

Its chemical properties are similar to those of manganese and technetium.

The lowest oxidation state in the compound is − 3 and the highest is + 7.

Lanthanum

Lanthanum is a metal rare earth element with the chemical symbol La, atomic number 57 and atomic weight 138.90547.

The element name comes from Greek and originally means “concealment”.

Silver gray luster, soft texture, density of 6.162g/cm3, melting point of 920 ℃, boiling point of 3464 ℃ (atmospheric pressure), active chemical properties, quickly lose metal luster after exposure to air and form a layer of blue oxide film, but it can not protect metal, and then further oxidize to form white oxide powder.

It can act slowly with cold water, soluble in acid, and can react with a variety of nonmetals.

Metal lanthanum is generally stored in mineral oil or rare gas.

The content of lanthanum in the earth’s crust is 0.00183%, which is second only to cerium in rare earth elements.

There are two natural isotopes of lanthanum: lanthanum-139 and radioactive lanthanum-138.

Cerium

Cerium, with atomic number 58, belongs to rare earth element and the sixth periodic system IIIB lanthanide, element symbol is Ce, and the elemental substance is silver gray active metal.

The powder is easy to spontaneous combustion in air, soluble in acid and reducing agent.

Praseodymium

Praseodymium is a metal element with atomic number 59. It is a rare earth metal.

The element name comes from Greek, which originally means “green”.

The crystal structure is hexagonal cell.

Praseodymium has stronger corrosion resistance in air than lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and europium, but exposure to air will produce a layer of fragile green oxide.

Pure praseodymium must be preserved in mineral oil or sealing plastic.

One of the uses of praseodymium is for petroleum catalytic cracking.

The activity, selectivity and stability of petroleum cracking catalyst can be improved by adding praseodymium and neodymium enrichment into Y-zeolite molecular sieve.

Praseodymium, like other rare earth elements, has chronic low toxicity and is not a necessary element for biology.

Neodymium

Neodymium, chemical symbol nd, atomic number 60, is one of the lanthanide elements.

The elemental substance is silver white metal.

It is one of the most active rare earth metals, with a melting point of 1024 °C and a density of 7.004g/cm ³, paramagnetic.

It can darken rapidly in the air and form oxides;

It reacts slowly in cold water and rapidly in hot water.

Neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet and neodymium glass can replace Ruby as laser materials, and neodymium and praseodymium glass can be used as goggles.

Neodymium plays an important role in the rare earth field and controls the rare earth market.

Samarium

Samarium is a metal element with the chemical symbol SM and atomic number 62.

This is a silver white metal with medium hardness, which is easy to oxidize in air.

As a typical component of the lanthanide series, samarium usually assumes an oxidation state of + 3.

The most common samarium compounds are SmO, SmS, SmSm and SmTe.

Samarium has no significant biological effects, only slight toxicity.

Europium

Europium is a metallic element, silvery white, which can be burned into oxide;

The oxide is approximately white.

Europium is an iron gray metal with melting point of 822 °C, boiling point of 1597 °C and density of 5.2434g/cm ³;

It is the softest and most volatile element in rare earth elements.

Europium is the most active metal in rare earth elements: at room temperature, europium immediately loses its metallic luster in the air and is quickly oxidized into powder;

React violently with cold water to generate hydrogen;

Europium can react with boron, carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, hydrogen and nitrogen.

Europium is widely used in the manufacture of reactor control materials and neutron protection materials.

As a phosphor for color TV, it has important applications in europium (Eu) laser materials and atomic energy industry.

Europium is one of the rarest rare earth elements. Its content on earth is only 1.1ppm.

It is a soft, shiny, steel gray metal with strong ductility and malleability, which means that it can be processed into a variety of shapes.

It looks and feels like lead, but it’s a little heavier.

Gadolinium

Gadolinium is a metal element with the symbol Gd, atomic number 64 and atomic weight 157.25. It is silvery white and ductile.

The name of the element comes from gadolin, a Finnish scientist who has made outstanding contributions to the study of lanthanides.

Gadolinium was isolated in maliyak, Switzerland in 1880, and pure gadolinium was prepared and named by the French chemist bouvabodrand in 1886.

The content of gadolinium in the earth’s crust is 0.000636%, which mainly exists in monazite and bastnaesite.

Gadolinium is widely used in medical, industrial, nuclear and other fields.

Terbium

Terbium is a member of lanthanide elements with atomic number of 65 and element symbol Tb. It is located in Group IIB of the sixth cycle. The elemental substance is silver white metal.

It is a rare earth metal and toxic.

There is only one stable isotope in nature, and another 20 radioisotopes, hexagonal lattice, dissolve in dilute acid and react slowly with water.

It has high reactivity. It shall be stored in a container filled with inert gas or vacuum container.

Dysprosium

Dysprosium is a silvery white metal with the element symbol Dy.

It is soft and can be cut with a knife.

Dysprosium has a melting point of 1412 °C, a boiling point of 2562 °C and a density of 8.55g/cm3;

It has superconductivity near absolute zero.

Dysprosium is quite stable in air.

It is easy to be oxidized by air and water at high temperature to form dysprosium oxide.

Dysprosium is mainly used to manufacture new lighting source dysprosium lamp;

Dysprosium can be used as control material of reactor;

Dysprosium compounds can be used as catalysts in oil refining industry.

Holmium

Holmium is a metal element with the chemical symbol Ho, atomic number 67 and atomic weight 164.93.

The name of the element comes from the birthplace of the discoverer.

In 1878, Solit discovered holmium from the spectrum of erbium earth.

The following year, Clive of Sweden separated holmium from erbium earth by chemical method.

The content of holmium in the earth’s crust is 0.000115%, which exists in monazite and rare earth ore together with other rare earth elements.

The natural stable isotope is only holmium 165. Holmium is silver white metal, soft and ductile;

Melting point 1474 °C, boiling point 2695 °C, density 8.7947 g / cm3.

Holmium is stable in dry air and oxidizes quickly at high temperature;

Holmium oxide is the most paramagnetic substance known. Holmium compounds can be used as additives for new ferromagnetic materials;

Holmium iodide is used to make metal halogen lamps – holmium lamps.

Holmium lasers are also widely used in the medical field.

Erbium

The element symbol Er, atomic number 68, is located in the 6th period in the periodic table of chemical elements, lanthanide (IIIB group) No. 11, atomic weight 167.26, and the element name comes from the discovery place of yttrium earth.

Erbium oxide was discovered from yttrium soil by Swedish scientist mossander in 1843, and was officially named in 1860.

The content of erbium in the earth’s crust is 0.000247%, which exists in many rare earth minerals.

There are six natural isotopes: erbium 162, 164, 166, 167, 168 and 170.

Thulium

Thulium is a silvery white metal with element symbol TM. It is malleable and soft.

It can be cut with a knife; Melting point 1545 °C, boiling point 1947 °C, density 9.3208.

Thulium is relatively stable in air;

Thulium oxide is a light green crystal.

Thulium has an atomic number of 69 and an atomic weight of 168.93421.

The name of the element comes from the country name of the discoverer.

The content of thulium in the earth’s crust is 2 / 100000, which is the least content of rare earth elements. It mainly exists in phosphorous yttrium ore and black rare gold mine.

The natural stable isotope is only thulium 169.

It is widely used in high-intensity power generation light source, laser, high-temperature superconductor and other fields.

Ytterbium

Ytterbium is a metal element with chemical symbol Yb, atomic number 70 and atomic weight 173.04.

The name of the element comes from its place of discovery.

The content of ytterbium in the earth’s crust is 0.000266%, which mainly exists in phosphorous yttrium ore and black rare gold ore, and there are seven natural isotopes.

Lutetium

Lutetium is a metal element with the chemical symbol Lu.

The elemental substance corresponding to lutetium is silver white metal, which is the hardest and densest metal among rare earth elements;

Melting point 1663 ℃, boiling point 3395 ℃, density 9.8404.

Lutetium is relatively stable in air;

Lutetium oxide is a colorless crystal, which dissolves in acid to form a corresponding colorless salt.

Lutetium is mainly used in research work, with few other uses.

It is soluble in dilute acid and can act slowly with water. Salts are colorless and oxides are white.

The naturally occurring isotopes are 175Lu and the half-life is 2.1 × 10 ^ 10 years β 176Lu.

There are few natural reserves and the price is expensive.

Scandium

Scandium is a chemical element.

The element symbol is SC and the atomic number is 21.

Simple substance is a soft, silvery white transition metal, which is often mixed with gadolinium and erbium.

Its output is very small, and its content in the earth’s crust is about 0.0005%.

Scandium is often used to make special glass and light heat-resistant alloy.

Yttrium

Yttrium is a gray black metal with chemical symbol Y.

It is the first rare earth metal element found and has ductility.

It can react with hot water and is easily soluble in dilute acid.

It can make special glass and alloy.

Thorium

Thorium is a radioactive metal element.

After neutron bombardment, thorium can obtain uranium-233, so it is a potential nuclear fuel.

Thorium strip steel has gray luster, soft texture and active chemical properties.

Thorium is widely distributed in the earth’s crust and is a promising energy material.

Common metals:

Such as iron, aluminum, copper, zinc, etc.

Rare metals:

Such as zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, etc.

Hafnium

Hafnium is a metal element with the symbol Hf, atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49.

Simple substance is a shiny silver gray transition metal.

There are six natural stable isotopes of hafnium: hafnium 174, 176, 177, 178, 179 and 180.

Hafnium does not react with dilute hydrochloric acid, dilute sulfuric acid and strong alkali solution, but is soluble in hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia.

The content of hafnium in the earth’s crust is 0.00045%, which is often associated with zirconium in nature.

Light metal:

The density is less than 4500kg / m3, such as titanium, aluminum, magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, etc.

Heavy metals:

The density is more than 4500kg / m3, such as copper, nickel, cobalt, lead, zinc, tin, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, mercury, etc.

Noble metal:

The price is more expensive than common metals, and the abundance of the earth’s crust is low (also known as Clarke value, a value representing the average content of chemical elements in the earth’s crust).

It is difficult to purify, such as gold, silver and platinum group metals.

Quasi metallic elements:

Properties are between metals and nonmetals, such as silicon, selenium, tellurium, arsenic, boron, etc.

Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element.

The chemical symbol is Si, formerly known as silicon.

The atomic number is 14, the relative atomic mass is 28.0855, and there are two allotropes of amorphous silicon and crystalline silicon.

It belongs to the third period on the periodic table and belongs to the metal like element of IVA group.

Silicon is also a very common element.

However, it rarely appears in nature in the form of simple substance, but widely exists in rocks, gravel and dust in the form of complex silicate or silica.

Silicon ranks eighth in the universe.

In the crust, it is the second abundant element, accounting for 26.4% of the total mass of the crust, second only to the first oxygen (49.4%).

Selenium

Selenium is a non-metallic element with the chemical symbol Se, which is located in the fourth periodic group VI a (element 34) in the periodic table of chemical elements.

It can be used as photosensitive material, catalyst for electrolytic manganese industry, essential nutrient elements for animals and beneficial nutrient elements for plants.

Selenium exists in nature in two ways: inorganic selenium and plant active selenium.

Inorganic selenium generally refers to sodium selenite and sodium selenite, which are obtained from the by-products of metal deposits;

The latter is formed by the combination of selenium and amino acids through biotransformation, and generally exists in the form of selenomethionine.

Tellurium

Tellurium is a quasi metal with the element symbol Te.

Tellurium is an orthorhombic silver white crystal, soluble in sulfuric acid, nitric acid, aqua regia, potassium cyanide and potassium hydroxide;

Insoluble in cold and hot water, carbon disulfide.

High purity tellurium is obtained by extracting and refining tellurium powder with sodium polysulfide, and the purity is 99.999%.

For semiconductor devices, alloys, chemical raw materials and cast iron, rubber, glass and other industries as additives.

Arsenic

Arsenic, commonly known as arsenic and element symbol as, is a non-metallic element.

It is located in the fourth cycle and VA group in the periodic table of chemical elements, with atomic number 33.

The elemental exists in the form of three allotropic forms of gray arsenic, black arsenic and yellow arsenic.

Arsenic exists widely in nature, and hundreds of arsenic minerals have been found.

Arsenic and its compounds are used in pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, and many alloys.

Its compound arsenic trioxide, known as arsenic, is a highly toxic substance.

Boron

Boron is a chemical element, and the element symbol is B.

The content of boron in the earth’s crust is 0.001%.

Boron is a black or silver gray solid.

Crystal boron is black, its hardness is second only to diamond, and its texture is brittle.

Boron also has an abnormally high coordination number in its hydride due to its lack of electron, making it the most complex of all elemental hydrides.

Rare metals:

Including rare light metals, such as lithium, rubidium, cesium, etc;

Rare refractory metals:

Such as zirconium, molybdenum, tungsten, etc;

Rare dispersed metals:

Such as gallium, indium, germanium, thallium, etc;

Rare earth metals:

Such as scandium, yttrium and lanthanide metals;

Radioactive metals:

Such as radium, francium, polonium and uranium and thorium in actinides.

Radium

Radium, the element symbol Ra, is a highly radioactive element.

It is located in the 7th cycle, IIA group and Atomic Number 88 in the periodic table of chemical elements.

Pure metal radium is almost colorless, but exposure to air will react with nitrogen to produce black radium nitride (Ra3N2).

All isotopes of radium have strong radioactivity, of which the most stable isotope is radium-226, with a half-life of about 1600 years, which will decay into radon-222.

When radium decays, it will produce ionizing radiation, making fluorescent substances glow.

It is a new element discovered by Madame Curie.

The discovery of radium has made great contributions to science.

Francium

Francium is a radioactive element.

Its chemical symbol is Fr and its atomic number is 87.

It is the α decay product of radioactive element ac-227 and exists in very small amounts in nature.

It is radioactive. Fr-223 is aβ radiator with a half-life of about 21 minutes.

There are 21 known isotopes, but they are unstable radioactive elements with a very short half-life.

Fr-223 has the longest service life.

The three long-lived isotopes behind it are fr-212, fr-222 and fr-221. Their half lives are 19.3 minutes, 14.8 minutes and 4.8 minutes respectively.

Polonium

Polonium, chemical symbol Po, atomic number 84, is one of the rarest known elements.

Its content in the earth’s crust is about 1 / 100 trillion, which is mainly obtained by artificial synthesis.

Elemental is a silvery white metal that glows in the dark.

It was discovered by the famous scientist Madame Curie and her husband Pierre Curie in 1898.

In order to commemorate Madame Curie’s motherland Poland, they named this element polonium.

Polonium is one of the most poisonous substances in the world.

Uranium

Uranium is an element with atomic number 92.

Its element symbol is U.

It is the heaviest element that can be found in nature.

There are three isotopes in nature, all of which are radioactive and have a very long half-life (hundreds of thousands of years ~ 4.5 billion years).

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