First, let’s see the definition of metal.
Definition of metals from Wikipedia:
A metal is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well.
Then how many types of metals are there?
Let’s dive right in.
Generally, metals can be divided into two categories: ferrous metal and nonferrous metal.
Ferrous metal (Black metal)
Alloys based on iron, manganese and chromium are usually referred to as ferrous metals. Iron-based alloys are called steel.
Alloys based on the remaining alloys are referred to as non-ferrous metals. Non-ferrous metals are usually named after their element names. Such as aluminum and aluminum alloys, copper and copper alloys.
Classified by the smelting process
Steel can be divided into:
- Hand furnace steel
- Electric furnace steel
- Converter steel
And electric furnace steel can be divided into:
- Electric arc furnace
- Induction furnace
- Vacuum induction furnace
- Electroslag furnace
Crucible type high frequency induction furnace
Classified by the degree of deoxidation
- Rimmed Steel (Q235AF)
- Killed steel (Z)
- Semi-killed steel (b)
- Special killed steel (TZ)
Classified by application
Steel can be divided into:
- Structural steel
- Tool steel
- Special performance steel
Specifically, structural steel can be further divided into:
- Building structural steel
- Machine manufacturing steel
Tool steel can be divided into:
- Measuring tool steel
- Cold mold tool steel
- Hot mold tool steel
Hot mold tool steel
Special property steel can be divided into:
- Impact resistant low-temperature steel
- Stainless acid resistant steel
- Weathering resistant steel
- Electrical steel
Classified by the metallographic structure
(1) According to the equilibrium state and the annealed structure, it is divided into: hypereutectoid steel, eutectoid steel, hypereutectoid steel and lysitic steel.
(2) According to the normalizing structure, it is divided into: pearlitic steel, bainite steel, martensitic steel and austenitic steel.
(3) According to the metallographic structure of the heating phase with or without phase change, it is divided into: ferritic steel, austenitic steel, martensitic steel, and duplex steel.
Classified by the chemical component
Carbon steel is divided into:
- Ordinary carbon steel
- High-quality carbon steel
- Advanced carbon steel
Ordinary carbon steel
Alloy steel is divided into:
- Low-alloy steel
- Medium alloy steel
- High alloy steel
Also been called mild steel. In addition to iron and carbon, it mainly contains a small amount of impurities like Si, Mn, S, P etc. The total content is not more than 2%. According to the carbon content, it is divided into:
- Low carbon steel – less than 0.25% carbon
- Medium carbon steel – carbon content 0.25 ~ 0.6%
- High carbon steel – carbon content greater than 0.6%
In addition to the elements contained in carbon steel, there are other alloying elements such as Cr, Ni, Mo, W, V, B. According to different alloying elements, it’s divided into:
- Low alloy steel – less than 5% alloy
- Medium alloy steel – alloy content 5-10%
- High alloy steel – alloy content greater than 10%
Classified by quality
(1) Ordinary steel
(2) High-quality steel
(3) Premium quality steel A
(4) Special high-quality steel E
Classified by shape
- 2-4.0 mm: steel sheet
- 4-20mm:medium plate
- >20mm: thick plate
- Seamless tube (hot rolled, cold drawn and pressed)
- Seamedwelding tube (straight seam pipe, spiral tube)
Angle steel, channel steel, I-beam, round steel, square steel, flat steel and hexagonal steel.
Rebar, steel wire and iron wire