13 Types of Springs: Performance and Application

1. Cylindrical spiral spring

Cylindrical helical compression spring with circular section

Cylindrical helical compression spring with circular section

The characteristic line is linear, with stable stiffness, simple structure, convenient manufacture and wide application.

It is mostly used as buffer, vibration reduction, energy storage and motion control in mechanical equipment.

Rectangular section cylindrical helical compression spring

Rectangular section cylindrical helical compression spring

Under the same space conditions, the rectangular section cylindrical helical compression spring has greater stiffness and absorbs more energy than the circular section cylindrical helical compression spring.

The characteristic line is closer to a straight line, and its stiffness is closer to a constant.

Flat section cylindrical helical compression spring

Flat section cylindrical helical compression spring

Compared with the circular section cylindrical spiral compression spring, the flat section cylindrical spiral compression spring has the characteristics of large storage energy, low compression height and large compression amount.

Therefore, it is widely used in engine valve mechanism, clutch, automatic transmission and other devices with relatively small installation space.

Unequal pitch cylindrical helical compression spring

Unequal pitch cylindrical helical compression spring

When the load increases to a certain extent, with the increase of the load, the spring gradually tightens from the small pitch, the stiffness gradually increases, and the characteristic line changes from linear to incremental.

Therefore, its natural frequency is variable, which can better eliminate or mitigate the influence of resonance.

It is mostly used in high-speed load changing mechanisms.

Multi strand cylindrical helical compression spring

Multi strand cylindrical helical compression spring

The material of multi strand cylindrical spiral compression spring is steel wire rope twisted by thin steel wire.

When not loaded, the contact between the wires of the wire rope is relatively loose.

When the external load reaches a certain degree, the contact is tight, and the spring rigidity increases, so the characteristic line of the multi strand spiral spring has a break point.

The multi strand cylindrical spiral compression spring has higher strength and greater damping effect than the ordinary cylindrical spiral spring with the same section material.

It is often used in weapons and aeroengines.

Cylindroid helical-coil extension spring

Cylindroid helical-coil extension spring

The performance and characteristics of cylindrical helical tension spring are the same as those of cylindrical helical compression spring with circular section.

It is mainly used in situations under tensile load, such as the tension spring used in the overload safety device of the coupling and the pawl return tension spring in the ratchet mechanism.

Cylindrical helical torsion spring

Cylindrical helical torsion spring bears torsional load and is mainly used for pressing and energy storage as well as elastic links in transmission system.

It has linear characteristic line and is widely used, such as dynamometer and forced air valve closing mechanism.

2. Reducing coil spring

Conical coil spring

Conical coil spring

The function of conical coil spring is similar to that of unequal pitch coil spring.

After the load reaches a certain degree, the spring gradually tightens from the big circle to the small circle, and the spring coil begins to contact.

Afterwards, the characteristic line is nonlinear, the stiffness increases gradually, and the natural vibration frequency is a variable value, which is conducive to eliminating or easing the resonance, and the anti resonance ability is stronger than that of the equal pitch compression spring.

This kind of spring has compact structure and good stability.

It is mostly used to bear large loads and reduce vibration, such as suspension spring applied to heavy vibrating screen and Dongfeng automobile transmission.

Volute coil spring

Volute coil spring

Compared with other springs, volute coil spring can absorb more energy in the same space, and the friction between its plates can be used to attenuate vibration.

It is often used in piping systems that need to absorb thermal expansion deformation and Yin Ni vibration or components associated with piping systems, such as steam and water piping systems in thermal power plants.

Its disadvantage is that the gap between plates is small, quenching is difficult, shot blasting cannot be carried out, and the manufacturing accuracy is not high enough.

3. Torsion bar spring

Torsion bar spring

The structure of torsion bar spring is simple, but the requirements of material and manufacturing accuracy are high.

It is mainly used as suspension spring of cars and small vehicles, auxiliary spring of valve in internal combustion engine, auxiliary spring of air spring and pressurizer.

4. Belleville spring

Belleville spring

Ordinary Belleville springs have strong load-bearing, cushioning and shock absorption capabilities.

Different characteristic lines can be obtained by using different combinations.

It can be used for pressure safety valve, automatic conversion device, reset device, clutch, etc.

5. Ring spring

Ring spring

Ring springs are widely used in occasions that need to absorb large energy but have limited space size, such as locomotive traction device springs, buffer springs of cranes and cannons, damping springs of forging hammers, braking springs of aircraft, etc.

6. Plane volute spring

Plane volute spring

Hairspring is a flat volute spring coiled with a small size metal belt.

It can be used as a measuring element (measuring hairspring) or a pressing element (contacting hairspring).


The spring is mainly used as an energy storage element.

Clockwork is reliable and easy to maintain.

It is widely used in timing instruments and time control devices, such as clocks, recording instruments, household appliances, etc., and as a power source in motor toys.

7. Leaf spring

Leaf spring is a kind of metal sheet with rectangular section, which is mainly used in occasions with small load and deformation.

It can be used as the sensitive element in the detection instrument or automatic device, the electric contact point, the pawl of the ratchet mechanism, the pressure spring of the positioner and the support or guide rail.

8. Steel plate spring

Steel plate spring

The steel plate spring is composed of multiple spring steel plates.

It is widely used as a suspension device in cars, tractors and trains for cushioning and vibration reduction.

It is also used as a vibration reduction device in various mechanical products, with high stiffness.

9. Rubber spring

Rubber spring

Due to the small elastic modulus, the rubber spring can obtain large elastic deformation, which is easy to achieve the required nonlinear characteristics.

The shape is unlimited, and the stiffness in all directions can be freely selected according to the design requirements.

The same rubber spring can bear multi-directional loads at the same time, so the structure of the system can be simplified.

The application of rubber springs in mechanical equipment is expanding day by day.

10. Rubber – metal spiral composite spring

Rubber - metal spiral composite spring

The characteristic curve of rubber metal spiral composite spring is increasing.

Compared with rubber spring, this rubber metal spiral composite spring has greater rigidity and damping compared with metal spring.

Therefore, it has the advantages of large bearing capacity, strong vibration damping, wear resistance and so on.

It is suitable for suspension structures of mining machinery and heavy vehicles.

11. Air spring

Air spring

Air spring is a non-metallic spring that uses the compressibility of air to achieve elastic effect.

Used in the vehicle suspension device can greatly improve the dynamic performance of the vehicle, so as to significantly improve its running comfort, so the air spring is widely used in cars and trains.

12. Diaphragm and capsule

Corrugated diaphragm

Corrugated diaphragm

It is used to measure various quantities that are nonlinear to pressure, such as the flow of liquid or gas in the pipeline, the flight speed and altitude of the aircraft, etc.

Flat diaphragm

Flat diaphragm

It is used as the sensitive element of the instrument and can isolate two different media, such as the flexible sealing device that deforms due to pressure or vacuum.



Two identical diaphragms are connected into a box shape along the periphery.

13. Pressure spring tube

Pressure spring tube

Under the pressure of the fluid, the end of the pressure spring tube produces displacement, and the displacement is transmitted to the pointer through the transmission mechanism.

It is used for pressure gauge, thermometer, vacuum gauge, liquid level gauge, flowmeter, etc.

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