The principle of product structure design is the basic idea and rule in product structure design
These basic rules make the product structure design more reasonable
Whether plastic or hardware products, the principles of product structure design include the reasonable choice of materials, selection of reasonable structure, simplification of mold structure and cost control, etc.
01 Reasonable selection of materials
All products are made of materials.
When designing products, the first thing to consider is the selection of materials.
Materials not only determine the function of the product, but also determine the price of the product.
How to choose materials reasonably?
(1) Choose according to the application of the product.
Different application places have different material requirements for products.
Here are some examples to illustrate.
If it is a daily consumer electronic product, the product materials should be those with good strength, easy surface treatment, not easy to rust, not easy to wear and easy to form, such as PC, ABS, PC + ABS for plastic materials, and stainless steel, aluminum, zinc alloy for metal materials.
If it is used in the food industry, the product materials should be non-toxic and tasteless, low temperature resistant, high temperature resistant, or even non-additive materials. If the beverage bottle is PET, the food packaging bag is PPPE, and the cup material for drinking water is PP, PC, etc.
(2) Choose according to the market orientation of the product.
Before designing a product, the market positioning of the product will also have an impact on the selection of materials.
The product quality is divided into high-grade, middle grade and low-grade.
Different grades of products correspond to different markets.
The material selection of high-grade products is excellent, the material performance of middle-grade products is acceptable, and the material selection of low-grade products can reduce the cost as much as possible.
(3) Choose according to the function of the product.
Product function is different, material selection is not the same.
Some products have the function of movement, the movement will inevitably bring wear, so in the selection of materials, we should consider wear resistance. There are many wear-resistant materials, such as most metal materials are generally wear-resistant, wear-resistant plastic materials such as PA (nylon), POM, rubber materials such as natural rubber, etc.
(4) Choose according to the company’s requirements.
Each company has its own suppliers, including material suppliers.
For the same product, there are several kinds of materials to meet the product design requirements, and the prices are not the same. The selection of which material should be considered in combination with the actual situation of the company.
02 Select reasonable structure
The product structure design is not the more complex the better.
On the contrary, the simpler the structure, the better under the premise of meeting the product function.
The simpler the structure is, the easier it is to make the mold.
The simpler the structure is, the easier it is to make the production and assembly, and the fewer problems it has.
In the structure design, the fixation methods are screw fixation, buckle fixation, double-sided adhesive fixation, hot-melt fixation, ultrasonic welding fixation, etc
How to use these fixed methods?
- Generally speaking, screw fixation is the most reliable and detachable, which should be preferred;
- The hook is convenient and simple to fix, but the fixing reliability is not high, so it can be selected combined with screws;
- Double-sided adhesive fixation, hot-melt fixation, etc. are used in specific places, when necessary.
The redundant structure is not allowed in product structure design, which means wasting design time, increasing the difficulty of mold processing and wasting materials.
In the design of product structure, we must do what we need, and do not do what we need. Every structure should be useful, including every buckle, every stiffener and so on.
03 Try to simplify the die structure
After the completion of product design, the mold is needed to form, and the product can be manufactured through the mold.
No matter how reliable the product structure design is, if the mold can not be realized or is difficult to realize, it is unqualified structure.
As a structural engineer, you must have a certain understanding of the mold.
It is necessary to know the basic structure of the mold, the molding method of the product, the way out of the mold, etc. Only in this way can we simplify the mold structure as much as possible when designing the product.
Die undercutting is the structure that affects the normal die out. The slider and inclined top are commonly used to solve the undercutting problem on the die, but it will increase the complexity of the die and the manufacturing cost of the die.
In the structural design, we should try our best to deal with the mold buckles, so that the product can be out of the mold normally.
For example, some internal buckles can be rubbed through or touched through to simplify the mold structure.
But some buckles can only keep the buckles, which can only be realized by adding slider or inclined top on the die.
Therefore, in product design, the simplified mold must be simplified after meeting the basic needs of the product.
04 Cost control
Cost is the core part of the product.
The level of cost determines the company’s profit margin to a large extent.
Cost control starts from the beginning of product design.
Product structure design in the cost to do the following aspects.
(1) When selecting materials, on the premise of meeting the function, try to choose materials with low prices.
(2) In product shape modeling, the number of parts should be reduced as much as possible on the premise of satisfying the appearance.
(3) When designing the product structure, the structure should be simplified as much as possible to save the cost of the mold.
(4) In order to save the cost of production and assembly, the proper fixing method should be selected in the design of the product structure.
(5) During the surface treatment of products, appropriate surface treatment methods should be adopted according to the product positioning and appearance requirements to save processing costs.
(6) In the product structure design, the company’s existing materials should be used as far as possible, and the material specifications should be unified as far as possible, such as the screw model.
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