There are more than 100 kinds of materials that can be used for mold processing, including metal, plastic, inorganic non-metal and paraffin.
See also: type of metal
However, according to the actual needs, the purpose and demand of each material are different.
Today, let’s talk about the 24 most commonly used metal materials for mold processing.
1. #45 – high quality carbon structural steel, which is the most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel
The most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low hardenability, and cracks are easy to occur during water quenching.
Small parts should be quenched and tempered, and large parts should be normalized.
It is mainly used to manufacture moving parts with high strength, such as turbine impeller, compressor piston, shaft, gear, rack and worm, etc.
Pay attention to preheating before welding and stress relief annealing after welding.
2. Q235A (A3 steel) – the most commonly used carbon structural steel
It has high plasticity, toughness, weldability, cold stamping performance, certain strength and good cold bending performance.
It is widely used in parts and welded structures with general requirements.
Such as tie rod, connecting rod, pin, shaft, screw, nut, ferrule, support, base, building structure and bridge with little force.
3. 40Cr – one of the most widely used steels, is an alloy structural steel
After quenching and tempering treatment, it has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low-temperature impact toughness and low notch sensitivity, good hardenability, high fatigue strength can be obtained in oil cooling, and cracks are easy to occur in parts with complex shapes in water cooling.
The cold bending plasticity is medium, and the machinability is good after tempering or quenching and tempering, but the weldability is not good and cracks are easy to occur. It should be preheated to 100 ~ 150 ℃ before welding.
It is generally used in the quenching and tempering state, and carbonitriding and high-frequency surface quenching can also be carried out.
After quenching and tempering, it is used to manufacture medium speed and medium load parts, such as machine tool gear, shaft, worm, spline shaft and thimble sleeve;
After quenching and tempering and high-frequency surface quenching, it is used to manufacture parts with high surface hardness and wear resistance, such as gear, shaft, main shaft, crankshaft, spindle, sleeve, pin, connecting rod, screw nut, inlet valve, etc;
After quenching and medium temperature tempering, it is used to manufacture parts with heavy load and medium speed impact, such as oil pump rotor, sliding block, gear, main shaft and collar;
After quenching and low-temperature tempering, it is used to manufacture heavy-duty, low impact and wear-resistant parts, such as worm, spindle, shaft and collar;
After carbonitriding treatment, transmission parts with large size and high low-temperature impact toughness, such as shafts and gears, are manufactured.
4. HT150 – Grey Cast Iron
Gear box, machine bed, box, hydraulic cylinder, pump body, valve body, flywheel, cylinder head, pulley and bearing cover, etc.
5. 35 – common materials of various standard parts and fasteners
Appropriate strength, good plasticity, high cold plasticity and acceptable weldability. Local upsetting and wire drawing can be carried out in cold state.
Low hardenability, used after normalizing or quenching and tempering.
It is suitable for manufacturing parts with small section and can bear large load, such as crankshaft, lever, connecting rod, shackle, various standard parts and fasteners.
6. 65Mn — common spring steel
Various flat and round springs, cushion springs and spring springs in small sizes can also be made into spring rings, valve springs, clutch springs, brake springs, cold coil springs and snap springs.
7. 0Cr18Ni9 — the most commonly used stainless steel (American steel 304, Japanese steel SUS304)
Features and applications:
As stainless heat-resistant steel, it is most widely used, such as food equipment, general chemical equipment, etc.
8. Cr12 – common cold working die steel (American steel D3, Japanese steel SKD1)
Features and applications:
Cr12 Steel is a widely used cold working die steel, which belongs to ledeburite steel with high carbon and high chromium.
The steel has good hardenability and wear resistance;
Because the carbon content of Cr12 Steel is as high as 2.3%, it has poor impact toughness, easy embrittlement and easy to form uneven eutectic carbides;
Because Cr12 Steel has good wear resistance, it is mostly used to manufacture high wear-resistant cold stamping dies, punches, blanking dies, cold upsetting dies, punches and concave dies of cold extrusion dies, drill sleeves, gauges, wire drawing dies, stamping dies, wire rubbing plates, deep drawing dies and cold stamping dies for powder metallurgy.
9. DC53 – common cold working die steel imported from Japan
Features and applications:
High strength and toughness cold working die steel, steel grade of Datong special steel (strain) manufacturer in Japan.
After high temperature tempering, it has high hardness, high toughness and good wire cutting performance.
Used for precision cold stamping die, drawing die, thread rolling die, cold blanking die and punch, etc.
10. Dccr12mov – wear resistant chromium steel
The carbon content of domestic steel is lower than that of Cr12 Steel, and the non-uniformity of carbide is improved by adding Mo and V.
Mo can reduce carbide segregation and improve hardenability, V can refine grain and increase toughness.
This steel has high hardenability. It can be completely quenched when the section is below 400mm, and it can still maintain good hardness and wear resistance at 300 ~ 400 ℃.
It has higher toughness than Cr12. Small volume change during quenching. It also has high wear resistance and good comprehensive mechanical properties.
Therefore, various molds with large section, complex shape and large impact can be manufactured, such as ordinary drawing die, punching die, blanking die, trimming die, edging die, wire drawing die, cold extrusion die, cold cutting scissors, circular saw, standard tools and measuring tools.
11. SKD11 – ductile chromium steel
Hitachi type production in Japan.
Technically, the casting structure in the steel is improved, the grain is refined, the toughness and wear resistance are improved compared with Cr12MoV, and the service life of the die is prolonged.
12. D2 – high carbon and high chromium cold working steel
Made in the United States.
It has high hardenability, hardenability and wear resistance, good high-temperature oxidation resistance and good corrosion resistance after quenching and polishing.
Heat treatment deformation is small.
It is suitable to manufacture all kinds of cold working dies, cutting tools and measuring tools requiring high precision and long life, such as drawing die, cold extrusion die and cold shear knife.
13. SKD11 (SLD) – high chromium steel with non deformation toughness
Hitachi type production in Japan.
Due to the increase of Mo and V content in the steel, the casting structure in the steel is improved, the grain is refined and the carbide morphology is improved.
Therefore, the strength and toughness (bending strength, deflection, impact toughness, etc.) of this steel is higher than SKD1 and D2, the wear resistance is also increased, and it has higher re-ignition resistance.
The practice shows that the service life of this steel die is higher than that of Cr12MoV. Often manufacture high demand molds, such as drawing molds, molds for impact grinding wheel blades, etc.
14. DC53 – high toughness high chromium steel
Datong strain production in Japan.
The hardness of heat treatment is higher than SKD11. High hardness of 62 ~ 63 HRC can be achieved after tempering at high temperature (520 ~ 530) ℃.
In terms of strength and wear resistance, DC53 exceeds SKD11 and its toughness is twice that of SKD11.
The toughness of DC53 has few cracks and cracks in cold working die manufacturing, which greatly improves the service life.
The residual stress is small, and the residual stress is reduced after turning back at high temperatures.
Because the cracks and deformation after wire cutting are restrained, the machinability and abrasiveness exceed SKD11. It is used for precision stamping dies, cold forging and deep drawing dies.
15. SKH-9 – general high speed steel with high wear resistance and toughness
Hitachi type production in Japan. Used for cold forging die, Slitter, drill bit, reamer and punch, etc.
16. Asp-23 – powder metallurgy high speed steel
Made in Sweden. Carbide distribution is very uniform, wear resistance, high toughness, easy to process and stable heat treatment size.
It is used for various long-life cutting tools such as punch, deep drawing die, drilling die, milling cutter and shear blade.
17. P20 – plastic molds of general requirements
Made in the United States. It can be operated by electric etching. Pre hardened HB270 ~ 300 and quenched hardness HRC52.
18. 718 – large and small plastic molds with high requirements
Made in Sweden. It can be operated by electric etching. Pre hardened HB290 ~ 330 and quenched hardness HRC52.
19. Nak80 – high mirror and high precision plastic mold
Datong, Japan. Pre hardened HB370 ~ 400 and quenched hardness HRC52.
20. S136 – corrosion resistant and mirror polished plastic mold
Made in Sweden. Pre hardening HB ＜ 215 and quenching hardness HRC52.
21. H13 – common die casting die
Used for aluminum, zinc, magnesium and alloy die casting, hot stamping die, aluminum extrusion die, etc.
22. SKD61 – advanced die casting die
It is produced by Hitachi in Japan. After electroslag remelting technology, the service life is significantly higher than that of H13. Used for hot stamping die and aluminum extrusion die.
23. 8407 – advanced die casting die
Made in Sweden. Used for hot stamping die and aluminum extrusion die.
24. FDAC – sulfur is added to enhance its chippability
The factory pre hardening hardness is HRC38 ~ 42, which can be carved directly without quenching and tempering.
It is used for small batch mold, simple mold, various resin products, sliding parts and mold parts with short delivery time. Such as zipper mold, eyeglass frame mold, etc.