11 Steps of Gear Processing You Must Know

Gear machining is an extremely complex process, only the use of the right technology to make efficient production is possible, each part of the production process must also be extremely accurate dimensions.

The gear machining cycle includes:

ordinary turning → gear hobbing → shaping → shaving → hard turning → gear-grinding machining  → honing → drilling → bore grinding → welding → measurement

It is important to have the right clamping system for this process, and we will introduce the gear clamping system for each process.

1. Ordinary turning

Ordinary turning

In normal turning, the gear blank is usually clamped on a vertical or horizontal turning machine.

For automatic clamping fixtures, most of them do not require an additional stabilizer on the other side of the spindle.

automatic clamping fixtures

2. Gear hobbing

Gear hobbing

Because of its outstanding economy, gear hobbing is a cutting process used for the production of external and cylindrical gears.

Gear hobbing is widely used not only in the automotive industry, but also in the manufacture of large industrial transmissions, but the premise is that it will not be restricted by the outer contour of the workpiece.

the outer contour of the workpiece

3. Shaping

Shaping

Shaping is a process of machining gears, which is mainly used in cases where hobbing is not possible.

This method is mainly used for internal gears and some external gears that are structurally disturbed.

structurally disturbed.

4. Shaving

Shaving

Shaving is a finishing process for gears, where the cutting is performed with a cutter body corresponding to the tooth shape of the gear.

This process has been widely used in industry due to its high productivity and economy.

Example of Shaving

5. Hard turning

Hard turning

Hard turning makes it possible to replace expensive grinding processes.

In order to function properly, the various parts of the system are connected to the machining part accordingly.

The selection of the correct machine tool, fixture and cutting tools determines the effectiveness of the turning process.

Example of Hard turning

6. Gear-grinding machining

Gear-grinding machining

In order to successfully achieve the precision required in gear production today, hard finishing of the tooth flanks is essential in many cases.

It is a very economical and efficient machining way in mass production.

On the other hand, similar to sample machining, grinding is more flexible when adjustable grinding tools are used.

example of Gear-grinding machining

7. Honing

Honing is the process of the final finishing of hard gears by applying an amorphous cutting angle.

Honing is not only economical but also results in a smooth surface with low noise level of the machined gears.

Honing has a low cutting speed (0,5 to 10 m/s) compared to grinding, eliminates the damage to gear machining caused by cutting heat.

More specifically, the internal stresses generated on the machined tooth surface have a positive effect on the load capacity of the equipment.

Honing

Examples of honing with flanged fixtures:

Examples of honing with flanged fixtures.

8. Drilling

Drilling is a rotary cutting process.

The axis of the cutting tool and the center of the drilled hole is identical in the axial direction, and the feed direction is the same as that of the cutting tool in the axial direction.

The spindle of the cutting motion should be aligned with the cutting tool, which is independent of the feed motion direction.

Drilling

Example of drilling with the SG clamping system:

Example of drilling with the SG clamping system:

9. Bore grinding

Bore grinding is a machining process with an amorphous cutting angle.

Compared to other cutting processes, grinding offers the advantages of high dimensional and forming accuracy, dimensional accuracy (IT 5-6), and high surface accuracy (Rz = 1-3μm) with very low chatter marks on hard metals.

Bore grinding

Example of bore grinding with the film clamping SM system:

 Example of Bore Grinding with the Film Clamping SM System:

10. Capacitive discharge welding

Capacitive discharge welding is a resistance welding process.

Capacitive discharge welding is achieved by a rapid increase in current, a relatively short welding time and a high welding current.

Thus, capacitive discharge welding offers many advantages.

The economy and efficiency of capacitive discharge welding are particularly important because of increasing energy prices.

Capacitive discharge welding

Example of capacitive discharge welding using a welding fixture system:

 Example of capacitive discharge welding using a welding fixture system:

11. Measurement

The testing of gears is very extensive and must be adjusted to the different forms of gears.

In the measurement of gears, the different important parameters of the gear are determined by measuring the length, the angles and the special gearing techniques.

Measurement

Examples of measurements with flanged SP clamping systems:

Example 1

Example 2

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