Hardness Conversion Chart: HLD, HRC, HRB, HV, HB, HSD

What Is Hardness?

Hardness refers to a material’s ability to resist the penetration of a hard object into its surface. It is one of the important performance indicators of metal materials.

Generally, the higher the hardness, the better the wear resistance. Common hardness indicators include Brinell hardness, Rockwell hardness, and Vickers hardness.

What Is Hardness

1. Brinell Hardness (HB)

This is determined by applying a certain load (generally 3000kg) to a certain size (usually 10mm in diameter) hardened steel ball pressed into the material surface, maintained for a period, and after unloading, the ratio of load to its indentation area is the Brinell hardness value (HB), the unit is KN/mm2 (N/mm2).

2. Rockwell Hardness (HR)

When HB>450 or the sample is too small, Brinell hardness test cannot be used and Rockwell hardness measurement is adopted instead. It is determined by pressing a diamond cone with a top angle of 120° or a steel ball with a diameter of 1.59, 3.18mm into the material surface under a certain load, and the material hardness is calculated from the depth of the indentation. According to the different hardness of the test material, it is expressed in three different scales:

  • HRA: Hardness obtained using a 60kg load and a diamond cone indenter, used for extremely hard materials (such as hard alloys).
  • HRB: Hardness obtained using a 100kg load and a 1.58mm diameter hardened steel ball, used for materials of lower hardness (such as annealed steel, cast iron).
  • HRC: Hardness obtained using a 150kg load and a diamond cone indenter, used for very hard materials (such as quenched steel).

3. Vickers Hardness (HV)

By pressing a diamond square cone with a top angle of 136° and a load of 120kg or less into the material surface, the Vickers hardness HV value (kgf/mm2) is obtained by dividing the surface area of the material indentation pit by the load value.

4. HLD (Leeb Hardness):

Leeb hardness is a metric used to measure the local or overall hardness of metallic materials. It is determined by measuring the material’s response to impact load. The Leeb hardness value can be converted into other hardness units, such as Rockwell hardness and Brinell hardness.

5. HSD (Shore Hardness):

Shore hardness is a method of measuring the hardness of non-metallic materials. It is determined by measuring the material’s resistance to a specific shape of indenter. Shore hardness values can also be converted into other hardness units.

Note:

In Rockwell hardness, HRA, HRB, and HRC are three different standards, referred to as Scale A, Scale B, and Scale C.

The Rockwell hardness test is one of the several common indentation hardness tests used today. All three scales start with an initial pressure of 98.07N (equivalent to 10kgf), and the hardness value is calculated based on the depth of indentation. Scale A uses a diamond cone indenter and applies pressure up to 588.4N (equivalent to 60kgf); Scale B uses a steel ball with a diameter of 1.588mm (1/16 inch) as the indenter and applies pressure up to 980.7N (equivalent to 100kgf); Scale C uses the same diamond cone as Scale A, but the applied pressure is 1471N (equivalent to 150kgf). Therefore, Scale B is suitable for relatively softer materials, while Scale C is suitable for harder materials.

Experience has shown that there is an approximate correlation between various hardness values of metal materials and between hardness values and strength values. Since the hardness value is determined by the initial plastic deformation resistance and the subsequent plastic deformation resistance, the higher the strength of the material, the higher the plastic deformation resistance, and hence the higher the hardness value. However, the conversion relationship of various materials is not consistent.

Please refer to the “Hardness Comparison Table” on this site, which provides a table for converting different hardness values of steel.

Hardness Conversion Chart

According to the German standard DIN50150, below is the comparison table of commonly used steel materials’ tensile strength with Vickers hardness, Brinell hardness, and Rockwell hardness.

1. HB, HB, HRC Hardness Chart


Tensile Strength
Rm
(N/mm2 )
Vickers Hardness
HV
Brinell Hardness
HB
Rockwell Hardness
HRC
2508076.0
2708580.7
2859085.2
3059590.2
32010095.0
33510599.8
350110105
370115109
380120114
400125119
415130124
430135128
450140133
465145138
480150143
490155147
510160152
530165156
545170162
560175166
575180171
595185176
610190181
625195185
640200190
660205195
675210199
690215204
705220209
720225214
740230219
755235223
77024022820.3
78524523321.3
80025023822.2
82025524223.1
83526024724.0
85026525224.8
86527025725.6
88027526126.4
90028026627.1
91528527127.8
93029027628.5
95029528029.2
96530028529.8
99531029531.0
103032030432.2
106033031433.3
109534032334.4
112535033335.5
111536034236.6
119037035237.7
122038036138.8
125539037139.8
129040038040.8
132041039041.8
135042039942.7
138543040943.6
142044041844.5
145545042845.3
148546043746.1
152047044746.9
1555480(456)47.7
1595490(466)48.4
1630500(475)49.1
1665510(485)49.8
1700520(494)50.5
1740530(504)51.1
1775540(513)51.7
1810550(523)52.3
1845560(532)53.0
1880570(542)53.6
1920580(551)54.1
1955590(561)54.7
1995600(570)55.2
2030610(580)55.7
2070620(589)56.3
2105630(599)56.8
2145640(608)57.3
2180650(618)57.8
 660 58.3
 670 58.8
 680 59.2
 690 59.7
 700 60.1
 720 61.0
 740 61.8
 760 62.5
 780 63.3
 800 64.0
 820 64.7
 840 65.3
 860 65.9
 880 66.4
 900 67.0
 920 67.5
 940 68.0

2. HV, HRC, HBS Hardness Chart

HVHRCHBS
94068
92067.5
90067
88066.4
86065.9
84065.3
82064.7
80064
78063.3
76062.5
74061.8
72061
70060.1
69059.7
68059.2
67058.8
66058.3
65057.8
64057.3
63056.8
62056.3
61055.7
60055.2
59054.7
58054.1
57053.6
56053
55052.3505
54051.7496
53051.1488
52050.5480
51049.8473
50049.1465
49048.4456
48047.7448
47046.9441
46046.1433
45045.3425
44044.5415
43043.6405
42042.7397
41041.8388
40040.8379
39039.8369
38038.8360
37037.7350
36036.6341
35035.5331
34034.4322
33033.3313
32032.2303
31031294
30029.8284
29529.2280
29028.5275
28527.8270
28027.1265
27526.4261
27025.6256
26524.8252
26024247
25523.1243
25022.2238
24521.3233
24020.3228
23018
22015.7
21013.4
20011
1908.5
1806
1703
1600

3. HLD, HRC, HRB, HV, HB, HSD Hardness Chart

Leeb
HLD
Rockwell
HRC
Rockwell
HRB
Vickers
HV
Brinell
HB[1]
Brinell
HB[2]
Shore
HSD
30083
30284
30485
30685
30886
31087
31287
31488
31689
31890
32090
32291
32492
32693
32894
33094
33295
33496
33697
33898
34099
342100
344101
346101
348102
35059.6103
35260.3104
35461105
35661.7106
35862.4107
36063.1108
36263.8109
36464.5110
36665.1111
36865.8112
37066.4114
37267115
37467.7116
37668.3117
37868.9118
38069.5119
38270.1120
38470.6121
38671.2123
38871.8124
39072.3125
39272.9126
39473.4127
39674129
39874.5130
40075131142
40275.5133144
40476134145
40676.5135147
40877136149
41077.5138150
41278139152
41478.4141153
41678.9142155
41879.3143156
42079.8145140157
42280.2146141159
42480.7148143160
42681.1149144162
42881.5151145163
43081.9152147165
43282.4154148166
43482.8155150168
43683.2157151169
43883.6158153171
44084160154172
44284.4161156174
44484.8163157175
44685.1164159176
44885.5166160178
45085.9168162179
45286.3169164181
45486.6171165182
45687173167184
45887.4174168185
46087.717617018726.4
46288.117817218826.7
46488.517917319027
46688.818117519127.3
46889.218317719327.6
47089.518517819427.9
47289.918618019628.2
47490.318818219728.5
47690.619018419828.8
4789119218520029.1
48091.319418720229.4
48291.719518920329.7
48492.119719120530
48692.419919220630.3
48892.820119420830.6
49093.120319620930.9
49293.520519821131.2
49493.920720021231.5
49694.320920221431.7
49894.621120421532
5009521320521732.2
50295.421520721932.5
50495.821720922032.8
50696.221921122233.1
50896.622121322433.3
51019.89722321522533.6
51220.297.422521722733.9
51420.697.922721922934.2
5162198.322922123034.4
51821.398.723122323234.7
52021.799.223322523435
5222299.623522723535.3
52422.423722923735.6
52622.823923123935.8
52823.124123424136.1
53023.524423624236.4
53223.824623824436.7
53424.124824024637
53624.525024224837.3
53824.825224425037.6
54025.225524625237.9
54225.525724925438.1
54425.825925125638.4
54626.226125325838.7
54826.526425525939
55026.826625826139.3
55227.126826226339.6
55427.527026226539.9
55627.827326526840.2
55828.127526727040.5
56028.427826927240.8
56228.828027227441.1
56429.128227427641.4
56629.428527627841.7
56829.728727928042
5703029028128242.3
57230.329228328542.6
57430.629428628742.9
57630.929728828943.2
57831.229929129243.5
58031.530229329443.8
58231.830429629644.1
58432.130729829944.4
58632.430930130144.7
58832.731230330445
5903331530630845.4
59233.331730831045.7
59433.632031131346
59633.932231431546.3
59834.232531631846.6
60034.532831932046.9
60234.833032232347.2
60435.133332432547.5
60635.433632732847.8
60835.733833033148.2
61035.934133233348.5
61236.234433533648.8
61436.534633833949.1
61636.834934034149.4
61837.135234334449.7
62037.435534634650.1
62237.635734934950.4
62437.936035135250.7
62638.236335435551
62838.536635735751.3
63038.736936036051.7
6323937236336352
63439.337536636652.3
63639.637736936952.6
63839.838037137152.9
64040.138337437453.3
64240.438637737753.6
64440.738938038053.9
64640.939238338354.2
64841.239538638654.6
65041.539838938954.9
65241.740139239255.2
6544240439539555.6
65642.340739839855.8
65842.641140140156.2
66042.841440440456.5
66243.141740740756.9
66443.442041041057.2
66643.642341341357.5
66843.942641741757.9
67044.142942042058.2
67244.443342342358.5
67444.743642642658.9
67644.943942942959.2
67845.244243243259.5
68045.544643543559.9
68245.744943943960.2
6844645244244260.5
68646.245644544560.9
68846.545944844861.2
69046.846345145161.6
6924746645545561.9
69447.346945845862.2
69647.547346146162.6
69847.847646546562.9
7004848046846863.3
70248.348347147163.6
70448.648747447464
70648.849147847864.3
70849.149448148164.6
71049.349848548565
71249.650148848865.3
71449.850549149165.7
71650.150949549566
71850.351349849866.4
72050.651650250266.7
72250.852050550567.1
72451.152450850867.4
72651.352851251267.8
72851.653251551568.2
73051.853551951968.5
73252.153952252268.9
73452.354352652669.2
73652.654752952969.6
73852.855153353369.9
74053.155553653670.3
74253.355954054070.7
74453.656354354371
74653.856854754771.4
74854.157255155171.8
75054.357655455472.1
75254.558055855872.5
75454.858456156172.9
7565558956556573.2
75855.359356956973.6
76055.559757257274
76255.760257657674.3
7645660658058074.7
76656.261058358375.1
76856.561558758775.5
77056.761959159175.8
77256.962459459476.2
77457.262859859876.6
77657.463360260277
77857.663860560577.4
78057.964260960977.7
78258.164761361378.1
78458.365261761778.5
78658.665762062078.9
78858.866262462479.3
7905966662862879.7
79259.267163263280.1
79459.567663563580.5
79659.768163963980.9
79859.968664364381.2
80060.169164764781.6
80260.469765165182
80460.670282.4
80660.870782.8
8086171283.2
81061.271883.7
81261.472384.1
81461.772884.5
81661.973484.9
81862.173985.3
82062.374585.7
82262.575086.1
82462.775686.5
82662.976287
82863.176887.4
83063.377387.8
83263.577988.2
83463.778588.6
83663.979189.1
83864.179789.5
84064.380389.9
84264.580990.4
84464.781690.8
84664.982291.2
84865.182891.7
85065.383592.1
85265.484192.6
85465.684893
85665.885493.5
8586686193.9
86066.286794.4
86266.387494.8
86466.588195.3
86666.788895.7
86866.889596.2
8706790296.7
87267.290997.1
87467.391697.6
87667.592398.1
87867.693198.6
88067.893899
8826894699.5
88468.1953
88668.2961
88868.4968
89068.5976

Conversion of Steel Hardness Values

Approximate conversion values of steel Vickers hardness (HV) to other hardness and strength measures.

Vickers HardnessBrinell HardnessRockwell HardnessSurface Rockwell HardnessShore HardnessTensile Strength (Approximate Value)Vickers Hardness
10-mm Steel Ball
3000-kg Load
Surface Diamond Cone Indenter
Standard Steel BallTungsten Carbide Steel BallA. Scale·Scale·Scale ·Scale15-N30-N45-NMpa(1000psi)
60-kg Load100-kg Load100-kg Load100-kg LoadScaleScaleScale
Diamond Cone IndenterDiamond Cone IndenterDiamond Cone IndenterDiamond Cone Indenter15-kg Load30-kg Load45-kg Load
HVHBSHBWHRAHRBHRCHRDHR15NHR30NHR45NHSσbHV
12345678910111213
37035035069.237.753.679.257.440.41170(170)370
36034134168.7-10936.652.878.656.439.1501130(164)360
35033133168.135.551.97855.437.81095(159)350
34032232267.6-10834.451.177.454.436.5471070(155)340
3303133136733.350.276.853.635.21035(150)330
32030330366.4-10732.349.476.252.333.9451005(146)320
31029429465.83148.475.651.332.5980(142)310
30028428465.2-105.529.847.574.950.231.142950(138)300
29528028065.829.247.174.649.730.4935(136)295
29027527564.5-104.528.546.574.24929.541915(133)290
28527027064.227.84673.848.428.7905(131)285
28026526563.8-103.527.145.373.447.827.940890(129)280
27526126163.526.444.97347.227.1875(127)275
27025625663.1-10225.644.372.646.426.238855(124)270
26525225262.724.843.772.145.725.2840(122)265
26024724762.4-1012443.171.64524.337825(120)260
2552432436223.142.271.144.223.2-36805(117)255
25023823861.699.522.241.770.643.422.2795(115)250
24523323361.221.341.170.142.521.134780(113)245
24022822860.798.120.340.369.641.719.933765(111)240
23021921996.7-1832730(106)230
22020920995-15.730695(101)220
21020020093.4-13.429670(97)210
20019019091.5-1128635(92)200
19018118189.5-8.526605(88)190
18017117187.1-625580(84)180
17016216285-324545(79)170
16015215281.7022515(75)160
15014314378.721490(71)150
1401331337520455(66)140
13012412471.2425(62)130
12011411466.7390(57)120
11010510562.3110
100959556.2100
9590905295
9086864890
8581814185
  • a) The values represented in boldface in this table align with the hardness conversion values according to ASTM-E140 table above, listed by the respective SAE-ASM-ASTM association.
  • b) Numerical values in parentheses are beyond the range and are provided for reference only.

Hardness Conversion Formulas

  1. Shore Hardness (HS) = Brinell Hardness (BHN) / 10 + 12
  2. Shore Hardness (HS) = Rockwell Hardness (HRC) + 15
  3. Brinell Hardness (BHN) = Vickers Hardness (HV)
  4. Rockwell Hardness (HRC) = Brinell Hardness (BHN) / 10 – 3

Rockwell Hardness (HRC) vs Brinell Hardness (HB)

Conversion Between Rockwell Hardness (HRC) and Brinell Hardness (HB)

Hardness is a performance indicator that measures the degree of softness or hardness of a material. There are many methods for hardness testing, each with different principles, leading to different hardness values and meanings.

The most common is the static load indentation hardness test, such as Brinell Hardness (HB), Rockwell Hardness (HRA, HRB, HRC), and Vickers Hardness (HV).

These hardness values indicate the ability of a material surface to resist the indentation of a hard object.

The popular Leeb Hardness (HL) and Shore Hardness (HS) belong to rebound hardness tests, representing the size of the elastic deformation work of metal.

Therefore, hardness is not a simple physical quantity, but a comprehensive performance indicator reflecting the elasticity, plasticity, strength, and toughness of a material.

1. Steel Hardness: The symbol for metal hardness (Hardness) is H.

Depending on the testing method used,

  • Conventionally, there are Brinell (HB), Rockwell (HRC), Vickers (HV), and Leeb (HL) hardness measurements, among which HB and HRC are most commonly used.
  • HB has a wide range of applications, while HRC is suitable for materials with high surface hardness, such as heat treatment hardness. The difference between them lies in the indenter used in the hardness tester; the Brinell hardness tester uses a steel ball, while the Rockwell hardness tester uses a diamond.
  • HV is used for microscopic analysis. Vickers Hardness (HV) is determined by pressing a diamond square cone with a load of up to 120kg and a top angle of 136° into the material surface, and then dividing the surface area of the indentation pit by the load value to get the Vickers hardness value (HV).
  • The HL portable hardness tester is easy to measure. It calculates hardness by using an impact ball to bounce off the hardness surface, and the formula for Leeb Hardness HL=1000×VB (rebound speed) / VA (impact speed).
  • The most commonly used portable Leeb hardness tester can convert Leeb (HL) measurements into Brinell (HB), Rockwell (HRC), Vickers (HV), and Shore (HS) hardness. Or use the Leeb principle to directly measure hardness values with Brinell (HB), Rockwell (HRC), Vickers (HV), Leeb (HL), Shore (HS).

Rockwell Hardness (HRC) is generally used for materials with high hardness, such as those after heat treatment.

2. HB – Brinell Hardness

This is generally used when the material is softer, such as non-ferrous metals, or steel before heat treatment or after annealing. Brinell Hardness (HB) is measured by applying a certain test load to press a hardened steel ball or carbide ball of a certain diameter into the surface of the metal being tested, maintaining it for a specified time, then unloading, and measuring the diameter of the indentation on the tested surface.

The Brinell Hardness value is obtained by dividing the load by the spherical surface area of the indentation.

Typically, a certain load (generally 3000kg) is used to press a hardened steel ball of a certain size (generally 10mm in diameter) into the material surface, maintained for a period of time, and after unloading, the ratio of the load to the indentation area is the Brinell Hardness value (HB), with units in kilogram-force/mm2 (N/mm2).

3. Rockwell hardness uses the depth of indentation plastic deformation to determine the hardness value index.

A unit of hardness is 0.002 millimeters. When HB>450 or the specimen is too small, the Brinell hardness test cannot be used and the Rockwell hardness measurement is adopted instead. This involves using a diamond cone with a 120° apex angle or a steel ball with a diameter of 1.59 or 3.18mm, under a certain load, pressed into the material surface, and determining the material’s hardness from the depth of the indentation. According to different hardness of the test material, three different scales are used:

  • HRA: Uses a 60kg load and a diamond cone indenter to determine hardness, and is used for materials with extremely high hardness (such as hard alloys, etc.).
  • HRB: Uses a 100kg load and a hardened steel ball with a diameter of 1.58mm to determine hardness, and is used for materials with lower hardness (such as annealed steel, cast iron, etc.).
  • HRC: Uses a 150kg load and a diamond cone indenter to determine hardness, and is used for materials with very high hardness (such as hardened steel, etc.).

Additionally:

  • HRC implies Rockwell hardness C scale.
  • HRC and HB are both widely used in production.
  • HRC’s applicable range is HRC 20-67, equivalent to HB225-650.

If the hardness exceeds this range, use Rockwell hardness A scale (HRA).

If the hardness is below this range, use Rockwell hardness B scale (HRB).

The upper limit of Brinell hardness is HB650; it cannot exceed this value.

4. The indenter for the Rockwell hardness tester C scale is a diamond cone with a 120-degree apex angle. The test load is a fixed value, and the Chinese standard is 150 kilograms of force. The indenter for the Brinell hardness tester is a hardened steel ball (HBS) or a hard alloy ball (HBW). The test load varies with the ball diameter, ranging from 3000 to 31.25 kilograms of force.

5. The indentation of the Rockwell hardness is very small, and the measurement value is local, so the average value must be calculated by measuring several points. It is suitable for finished products and thin sheets, and is classified as non-destructive testing. The indentation of the Brinell hardness is larger, and the measurement value is accurate, but it is not suitable for finished products and thin sheets. It is generally not classified as non-destructive testing.

6. The hardness value of Rockwell hardness is a dimensionless number, with no unit. (Therefore, it is incorrect to refer to the Rockwell hardness as a degree.) The hardness value of Brinell hardness has a unit and has a certain approximate relationship with tensile strength.

7. Rockwell hardness is directly displayed on the dial and can also be displayed digitally. It is convenient to operate, quick and intuitive, and suitable for mass production. Brinell hardness requires the use of a microscope to measure the diameter of the indentation, and then look up the table or calculate, the operation is relatively cumbersome.

8. Under certain conditions, HB and HRC can be converted by looking up a table. The mental calculation formula can be roughly remembered as: 1HRC≈1/10HB.

Hardness Testing

Hardness is a critical property of materials, particularly in industrial and engineering applications. It refers to the measure of a material’s resistance to deformation, especially plastic deformation, when subjected to a force. In simpler terms, hardness indicates the ability of a material to resist penetration, scratching, or wear. This attribute is crucial when evaluating the performance and durability of materials used in various environments.

There are several hardness measurement scales and methods, but commonly used ones include HLD, HRC, HRB, HV, HB, and HSD. Each of these measurements tests different aspects of a material’s resistance to forces or deformation using specific testing techniques and machinery. It is important to understand the various hardness scales as they may provide different results and are best suited for specific types of materials.

HLD, or Leeb Hardness, is a dynamic hardness test that measures the rebound velocity of a small impact body after being struck against the material under test. The higher the rebound velocity, the harder the material. HLD is utilized for in-situ testing of large and cumbersome components.

HRC, HRB, and other Rockwell Hardness scales utilize a small indenter to create an indentation on the surface of the material under a predetermined force. The depth of indentation is measured, giving us an indication of the hardness. The hardness values are represented as 0-100 HRC, 0-100 HRB, and so on. Rockwell Hardness is typically used for assessing metals and harder materials.

HV represents Vickers Hardness and employs a diamond pyramid indenter with a load applied to create a small indentation on the material’s surface. The dimensions of the indentation are then measured, which reveals the material’s hardness value. Vickers Hardness is suitable for materials with varying hardness levels and thicknesses, including ceramics and thin metal coatings.

HB signifies Brinell Hardness and uses a spherical indenter under a specific load pushed into the material. The diameter of the indentation left is measured to determine the material’s hardness. Brinell Hardness is commonly utilized for softer materials such as aluminum, brass, and certain types of steel.

Lastly, HSD is an abbreviation for Hardness Scleroscope— a less common hardness test method that operates on the principle of measuring the rebound height of a diamond-tipped hammer after it impacts the material’s surface.

Selecting the appropriate hardness measurement method is crucial for obtaining accurate results and gauging material performance. It is essential to consider the specific material properties, industry requirements, and application needs to make informed decisions when selecting hardness measurement methods.

What Are the Common Sources of Error in Hardness Testing and How Can These Errors Be Reduced?

Common sources of errors in hardness testing mainly include errors from the hardness tester itself, changes in test conditions, and technical errors from the operator. Specifically, the sources of error in Rockwell hardness testing can be divided into three main categories: the first category is issues with the hardness tester itself, such as the test force, indenter form position error, and measurement structure error; the second category of errors stems from changes in test conditions; the third category of errors originates from technical errors of the operator. The sources of error in Vickers hardness testing include the operator’s targeting and reading of the indentation diagonals, which may be erroneous, and the result differences that may arise from different personnel using different measuring devices.

To reduce these errors, the following measures can be taken:

For errors from the hardness tester itself, they can be reduced through regular calibration and maintenance. For example, for Rockwell hardness testers, ensure that its parts do not deform or move to avoid errors caused by hardness parameters exceeding the specified standards.

Improve test conditions, such as increasing the surface roughness, weight, and coupling degree of the workpiece, especially when measuring Brinell hardness. For special materials such as thin plates, apply a uniform layer of butter or Vaseline on the backside to improve the coupling effect.

Reduce the operator’s technical errors. Fully automatic Vickers hardness testers can largely eliminate human errors as they reduce the dependency on targeting and reading of the indentation diagonals.

Use suitable hardness testers for testing. For example, for small workpieces, choose a suitable hardness tester and take corresponding measures to reduce errors, such as avoiding lateral impact on hollow materials.

Through these measures, errors in hardness testing can be effectively reduced, improving the accuracy and reliability of the test results.

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Shane
Author

Shane

Founder of MachineMFG

As the founder of MachineMFG, I have dedicated over a decade of my career to the metalworking industry. My extensive experience has allowed me to become an expert in the fields of sheet metal fabrication, machining, mechanical engineering, and machine tools for metals. I am constantly thinking, reading, and writing about these subjects, constantly striving to stay at the forefront of my field. Let my knowledge and expertise be an asset to your business.

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