12 Mechanical Properties of Sheet Metal Materials (Complete List)

Mechanical Properties of Sheet Metal

①  Tensile Strength

Tensile Strength

The maximum stress that a sheet metal material undergoes before breaking is known as the tensile strength. The unit of measurement is N/mm2 or MPa, and it is represented by the symbol σb. Tensile strength is one of the indicators of a metal’s overall strength.

② Bending Strength

Bending Strength

The maximum stress that a cross section experiences when a load is applied between two points of a specimen is called the bend strength. The unit of measurement is N/mm2 or MPa, and it is represented by the symbol σbb. Bend strength is one of the indicators of a metal’s overall strength.

③ Compressive Strength

Compressive Strength

The maximum stress that a sheet metal material can endure under pressure without breaking is known as the compressive strength. The unit of measurement is N/mm2 or MPa, and it is represented by the symbol σbc.

④  Yield Strength

Yield Strength

Yield strength refers to the stress of a metal sample during the stretching process when the load is no longer increasing but the sample continues to deform. The unit of measurement is N/mm2 or MPa, and it is represented by the symbol σs. The yield strength is the pressure value at the yield point.

For materials that do not exhibit an obvious yield point, the stress value that produces a 0.2% permanent deformation is often considered as the yield strength.

⑤ Shear Strength

It refers to the maximum load of the original cross-sectional area of the shear area before the sample shears.

The unit is: N/mm2 or MPa and symbol is στ.

⑥ Elastic Limit

Elastic Limit

It refers to the maximum stress of the specimen under the condition that the test piece deforms after the external force disappears and can recover the original condition.

The unit is: N/mm2 or MPa and symbol is σe.

⑦ Fracture Surface Shrinking Percentage

Fracture Surface Shrinking Percentage

It is the percentage of the original cross-sectional area that is shrunk after tensile load.

The symbol is ψ and it is one of the plastic indexes of materials.

⑧ Elongation Ratio

fracture elongation

Refers to the percentage of the elongation of the sample material and the original length after the sample material is breaking.

Elongation is also one of the plastic pointers of materials and symbol is δ.

⑨ Hardness

Hardness

It refers to the ability of the material to resist hard pressing into its surface.

There are three types of hardness: Brinell hardness, Rockwell hardness and Vickers hardness.

Generally, the hardness of steel increases with the increase of carbon content in steel.

⑩ Brinell Hardness(HB)

brinell hardness

One way to represent hardness and measure it is through the Brinell hardness test. This test involves quenching a steel ball and then pressing it into the material surface under a specified load for a set period of time. The ratio of the applied pressure load to the area of the indentation is then calculated, and this ratio represents the Brinell hardness.

⑪ Rockwell Hardness (HR)

Rockwell Hardness

Another method of representing and measuring hardness is the Rockwell hardness test. This test involves pressing a diamond cone or steel ball after quenching into the material surface and then determining the hardness based on the depth of the indentation.

The Rockwell hardness is divided into three categories: HRA, HRB, and HRC, which are based on different test items and pressures.

HRA: The hardness value is obtained by applying 1470N of pressure using a diamond head with a 120-degree cone angle on the test samples. It is suitable for measuring the surface quenching layer, carburizing layer, and hard alloy materials.

HRB: The hardness value is obtained by applying 980N of pressure with a 1.59mm diameter steel ball. It is suitable for measuring soft metals such as nonferrous metals, annealed, and normalized steel.

HRC: The hardness value is obtained by applying 588N of pressure using a diamond cone with a 120-degree vertex angle on the test samples. It is suitable for measuring hard metals such as tempered steel and hardened steel.

Metal Mechanical Properties Chart

For the metal mechanical properties chart including shear strength, tensile strength, yield strength, you can check it out here.

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5 thoughts on “12 Mechanical Properties of Sheet Metal Materials (Complete List)”

  1. Good to have all your information in my recorders and to share all these with my budding junior engineers. Email me all such related information of Mechanical Engineering. Your small action are big big information to all engineers out here. Thank you.

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