After years of development, fiber laser cutting machine has improved the production efficiency for the processing and production of various industries, and is more and more widely used in various industries.
Optical fiber laser cutting machine adopts laser technology for processing and production, which belongs to non-contact processing.
Compared with the traditional method, it will not cause material deformation and damage, and the processing is fine and fast.
Therefore, more and more enterprises choose to buy fiber laser cutting machines.
For many enterprises, the purchase of fiber laser cutting machine is a very important decision.
Due to the increasing brands of optical fiber laser cutting machines, the prices of optical fiber laser cutting machines in the market are different. Therefore, when choosing fiber laser cutting machine, most buyers have been hesitant.
If you do not select the right equipment according to your actual needs, you will waste not only the initial capital investment, but also the golden period of the company’s development.
Of course, for enterprises with insufficient funds, a wrong purchase of optical fiber laser cutting machine may cause heavy losses or even bankruptcy.
Therefore, in any case, you must do your homework and buy the right equipment in the selection of fiber laser cutting machine, which will benefit your enterprise for at least 10 years.
You know how important 10 years is for the development of an enterprise.
Since many enterprises buy the fiber laser cutting machine for the first time and don’t know much about the machine, this post starts from some basic knowledge, so that we can first have a preliminary understanding of the machine, and then deeply learn how to choose the fiber laser cutting machine.
About laser cutting
Laser cutting principle
Laser cutting is to use the focused high-power density laser beam to irradiate the workpiece, so that the irradiated material can quickly melt, vaporize, ablate or reach the ignition point, and blow away the molten material with the help of the high-speed air flow coaxial with the beam, so as to cut the workpiece.
Laser cutting is one of the thermal cutting methods.
The principle of laser cutting is shown in the figure below:
Laser cutting classification
Laser cutting can be divided into laser vaporization cutting, laser melting cutting, laser oxygen cutting and laser scribing and fracture control.
1) Laser vaporization cutting
Using high energy density laser beam to heat the workpiece, the temperature rises rapidly, reaches the boiling point of the material in a very short time, and the material begins to vaporize to form steam.
These vapors are ejected at a high speed. When the steam is ejected, a notch is formed on the material.
The heat of vaporization of materials is generally large, so laser vaporization cutting requires a large power and power density.
Laser vaporization cutting is mostly used for cutting very thin metal materials and non-metallic materials (such as paper, cloth, wood, plastic and rubber, etc.).
2) Laser melting cutting
During laser melting cutting, the metal material is melted by laser heating, and then the non oxidizing gas (Ar, He, N, etc.) is injected through the nozzle coaxial with the beam to discharge the liquid metal by relying on the strong pressure of the gas to form a notch.
Laser melting cutting does not need to vaporize the metal completely, and the energy required is only 1 / 10 of that of vaporization cutting.
Laser melting cutting is mainly used for cutting some materials or active metals that are not easy to oxidize, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and their alloys.
3) Laser oxygen cutting
The principle of laser oxygen cutting is similar to oxyacetylene cutting.
It uses laser as preheating heat source and active gas such as oxygen as cutting gas.
On the one hand, the injected gas acts with the cutting metal to produce oxidation reaction and release a large amount of oxidation heat; On the other hand, the molten oxide and melt are blown out of the reaction zone to form a notch in the metal.
Because the oxidation reaction in the cutting process produces a lot of heat, the energy required for laser oxygen cutting is only 1 / 2 of that of melting cutting, and the cutting speed is much higher than that of laser vaporization cutting and melting cutting.
Laser oxygen cutting is mainly used for easily oxidized metal materials such as carbon steel, titanium steel and heat treated steel.
4) Laser scribing and fracture control
Laser scribing is to scan the surface of brittle material with high energy density laser, so that the material is heated and evaporated into a small groove, and then a certain pressure is applied, and the brittle material will crack along the small groove.
The lasers used for laser scribing are generally Q-switched lasers and CO2 lasers.
Controlled fracture is to use the steep temperature distribution produced by Laser Grooving to generate local thermal stress in brittle materials and break the materials along small grooves.
Characteristics of laser cutting
Compared with other thermal cutting methods, laser cutting is characterized by fast cutting speed and high quality.
It can be summarized as follows.
(1) Good cutting quality
Due to the small laser spot, high energy density and fast cutting speed, laser cutting can obtain better cutting quality.
① The laser cutting incision is thin and narrow, both sides of the cutting seam are parallel and perpendicular to the surface, and the dimensional accuracy of the cutting parts can reach ± 0.05mm.
② The cutting surface is smooth and beautiful, and the surface roughness is only tens of microns. Even laser cutting can be used as the last process without machining, and parts can be used directly.
③ After laser cutting, the width of the heat affected zone is very small, and the performance of the material near the cutting seam is almost unaffected. In addition, the workpiece deformation is small, the cutting precision is high, the geometry of the cutting seam is good, and the cross-section shape of the cutting seam presents a regular rectangle.
The comparison of laser cutting, oxyacetylene cutting and plasma cutting methods is shown in Table 1. The cutting material is 6.2mm thick low carbon steel plate.
Table 1 Comparison and calibration of laser cutting, oxyacetylene cutting and plasma cutting methods
|Cutting method||Slit width||Width of heat affected zone / mm||Slit shape||Cutting speed||Equipment cost|
|Oxyacetylene cutting||0.9-1.2||0.6-1.2||Relative parallel||Slow||Low|
|Plasma cutting||3.0-4.0||0.5-1.0||Wedge and inclined||Fast||Medium and high|
⑵ High cutting efficiency
Due to the transmission characteristics of laser, the laser cutting machine is generally equipped with multiple NC worktables, and the whole cutting process can be numerical controlled.
During operation, only changing the NC program can be applicable to the cutting of parts with different shapes, which can not only carry out two-dimensional cutting, but also realize three-dimensional cutting.
⑶ Fast cutting speed
Cutting 2mm thick low carbon steel plate with 1200W laser, and the cutting speed can reach 600cm / min; Cut 5mm thick polypropylene resin board, and the cutting speed can reach 1200cm / min.
The material does not need to be clamped and fixed during laser cutting, which can not only save the tooling and fixture, but also save the auxiliary time of loading and unloading.
The speed of laser cutting can be referred to this article.
⑷ Non contact cutting
During laser cutting, the cutting torch has no contact with the workpiece and there is no tool wear.
To process parts with different shapes, it is not necessary to change the “tool”, but only to change the output parameters of the laser.
The laser cutting process has the advantages of low noise, small vibration and no pollution.
⑸ A variety of cutting materials
Compared with oxyacetylene cutting and plasma cutting, there are many kinds of laser cutting materials, including metal, non-metal, metal matrix and non-metal matrix composites, leather, wood and fiber.
However, different materials show different laser cutting adaptability due to their different thermophysical properties and laser absorptivity.
Due to the limitation of laser power and equipment volume, laser cutting can only cut medium and small thickness plates and pipes, and the cutting speed decreases significantly with the increase of workpiece thickness.
The cost of laser cutting equipment is high and the one-time investment is large.
About laser cutting machine
The laser cutting machine focuses the laser emitted from the laser into a laser beam with high power density through the optical path system.
The laser beam irradiates the surface of the workpiece to make the workpiece reach the melting point or boiling point. At the same time, the high-pressure gas coaxial with the beam blows away the molten or gasified metal.
With the movement of the relative position between the beam and the workpiece, the material will finally form a slit, so as to achieve the purpose of cutting.
Metals that can be cut by laser
When the material is cut with oxygen, better results will be obtained.
When oxygen is used as the processing gas, the cutting edge will be slightly oxidized.
For plates up to 4mm thick, nitrogen can be used as processing gas for high-pressure cutting.
In this case, the cutting edge will not be oxidized.
For plates with a thickness of more than 10mm, good results can be obtained by using special plates for lasers and oiling the workpiece surface during processing.
Oxygen can be used when oxidation of cutting end face is acceptable; If nitrogen is used to obtain oxidation free and burr free edges, no further treatment is required.
Coating oil film on the surface of the plate will get better perforation effect without reducing the processing quality.
Despite its high reflectivity and thermal conductivity, aluminum with a thickness of less than 6mm can be cut, depending on the alloy type and laser capability.
When cutting with oxygen, the cutting surface is rough and hard.
When nitrogen is used, the cutting surface is smooth.
Pure aluminum is very difficult to cut because of its high purity. Aluminum can be cut only when the “reflection absorption” device is installed on the system. Otherwise, the reflection will destroy the optical components.
Titanium plate is cut with argon and nitrogen as processing gas. Other parameters can refer to nickel chromium steel.
Copper and brass
Both materials have high reflectivity and very good thermal conductivity.
Brass with thickness less than 1mm can be cut with nitrogen; Copper with thickness less than 2mm can be cut, and oxygen must be used for processing gas.
Copper and brass can be cut only when a “reflection absorption” device is installed on the system, otherwise reflection will destroy the optical components.
What is a fiber laser cutting machine?
Fiber laser cutting machine is a laser cutting machine using fiber laser generator as light source.
Fiber laser is a new type of fiber laser developed in the world. The laser beam with high energy density is output and gathered on the surface of the workpiece, so that the area irradiated by the ultra-fine focus spot on the workpiece can be melted and gasified instantly, and the automatic cutting can be realized by moving the spot irradiation position through the numerical control mechanical system.
Compared with the huge gas laser and solid-state laser, it has obvious advantages and has gradually developed into an important candidate in the fields of high-precision laser processing, lidar system, space technology, laser medicine and so on.
Optical fiber laser cutting machine can be used for both plane cutting and oblique angle cutting, and the edge is neat and smooth. It is suitable for high-precision cutting processing such as metal plate. At the same time, with the mechanical arm, it can carry out three-dimensional cutting instead of the originally imported five axis laser.
Compared with ordinary carbon dioxide laser cutting machine, it saves more space and gas consumption, has high photoelectric conversion rate, is a new product of energy conservation and environmental protection, and is also one of the world’s leading technical products.
Application of fiber laser cutting machine
Most laser cutting machines are controlled by NC programs or made into cutting robots.
As a precise machining method, laser cutting can cut almost all materials, including two-dimensional cutting or three-dimensional cutting of thin metal plates.
Laser cutting forming technology is also widely used in the field of non-metallic materials.
Optical fiber laser cutting machine is mainly used in various manufacturing and processing industries, such as sheet metal processing, aviation, aerospace, electronics, electrical appliances, subway accessories, automobiles, grain machinery, textile machinery, engineering machinery, precision accessories, ships, metallurgical equipment, elevators, household appliances, craft gifts, tool processing, decoration, advertising, metal external processing, kitchenware processing, etc.
Various cutting and blanking methods have their disadvantages and have a certain scope of application in industrial production.
The development and application of laser cutting machine is undoubtedly a major improvement and innovation breakthrough in modern industrial production.
Working principle of fiber laser cutting machine
Fiber laser cutting machine is a high-tech equipment integrating advanced fiber laser technology, numerical control technology and precision machinery technology.
It uses an advanced fiber laser to output a laser beam with high energy density. Through the cutting head, the beam is focused on the surface of the workpiece to form a small point (the minimum diameter can be less than 01mm), so that the workpiece is illuminated by the ultra-fine focus. The area is instantly melted and evaporated, and then evaporated to form a hole.
The numerical control mechanical system moves the irradiation position of the laser spot to make the hole continuously form a narrow gap and realize automatic cutting.
Types of fiber laser cutting machines
According to the power, the fiber laser cutting machine can be divided into:
- Low power fiber laser cutting machine
- Medium power fiber laser cutting machine
- High power fiber laser cutting machine
If the fiber laser cutting machine is classified according to the cutting materials, the common ones in the market are:
- Aluminum alloy laser cutting machine
- Stainless steel laser cutting machine
- Carbon steel laser cutting machine
Materials need to be combined when selecting, and the equipment required for each different material will be different.
If the fiber laser cutting machine is classified according to the use, it can be divided into:
- Plate optical fiber laser cutting machine
- Medium and heavy plate optical fiber laser cutting machine
- Medium thin plate optical fiber laser cutting machine
This is more obvious. It mainly refers to different processing materials and then classification. In addition, it can also be classified according to the structure of the equipment, which can be mainly divided into:
- Single table fiber laser cutting machine
- Exchange table fiber laser cutting machine
Advantages of fiber laser cutting machine
Advantages of fiber laser cutting machine over CO2 laser cutting machine
1) Excellent beam quality
Smaller focus spot, finer cutting lines, higher work efficiency and better processing quality;
2) Extremely high cutting speed
It is twice that of CO2 laser cutting machine with the same power;
3) High stability
The world’s top imported fiber laser is adopted, with stable performance and the service life of key components up to 100000 hours;
4) High electro-optic conversion efficiency
The photoelectric conversion efficiency of fiber laser cutting machine is about 30%, which is three times higher than that of CO2 laser cutting machine, saving energy and environmental protection;
5) Very low use cost
The power consumption of the whole machine is only 20-30% of that of similar CO2 laser cutting machines;
6) Very low maintenance costs
No laser working gas; Optical fiber transmission without reflector; It can save a lot of maintenance costs;
7) The product is easy to operate and maintain
Optical fiber transmission, no need to adjust the optical path;
8) Super flexible light guide effect
Small size, compact structure, easy to meet the requirements of flexible processing.
Of course, compared with carbon dioxide laser cutting machine, the cutting range of optical fiber is relatively narrow. Because of the wavelength, it can only cut metallic materials, and non-metallic materials are not easily absorbed by it, thus affecting its cutting range.
Advantages of fiber laser cutting machine over YAG laser cutting machine
1) Cutting speed
The speed of fiber laser cutting machine is 4-5 times that of YAG, which is suitable for mass processing and production
2) Use cost
The use cost of fiber laser cutting machine is less than that of YAG solid-state laser cutting
3) Photoelectric conversion efficiency
The photoelectric conversion efficiency of fiber laser cutting machine is about 10 times that of YAG
The price of the corresponding fiber laser is high, so the price of the fiber laser cutting machine is much higher than that of the YAG laser cutting machine, but much lower than that of the carbon dioxide laser cutting machine. But its performance/price ratio is indeed the highest of the three.
Comparison with other blanking methods
|Laser cutting||Small 0.1-0.3||Small||High 0.2mm||Very easy||Slow||High|
|Plasma cutting||Small||Big||High 1mm||Very easy||Fast||Low|
|Wire cutting||Small||Small||High||Easy||Very Slow||High|
|Gas fuel cutting||Very Big||Very Big||Low||Easy||Slow||Low|
|EDM||Small||Small||High||Easy||Very Slow||Very High|
How to choose fiber laser cutting machine?
How to choose a laser cutting machine?
This problem is the same as what to eat for lunch today. It has always existed but tangled.
To buy a suitable product, users must first understand their own needs. After all, radishes and cabbage have their own love. Everyone’s needs are different. What suits you is the best.
Here, I’ll give you a brief list of some things you need to understand before buying a laser cutting machine:
1. Purchase cost
Purchase cost is one of the important indicators of enterprise development investment. After all, development must need fresh blood, but it can’t be mindless. At this time, it needs some skills and reference.
Buy laser cutting machine, if your budget is high enough, you can directly choose imported brands. For example, the world’s top ten laser cutting machine brands.
However, I believe that the budget of most enterprises is not enough to support the purchase of large brands, and the laser cutting technology is in the stage of rapid development in recent years, especially the metal laser cutting machine. The current laser cutting technology has been relatively mature and stable.
When considering the cost, it is also a good choice to choose a Chinese brand laser. You can buy a suitable machine with a lower purchase cost.
2. Use requirements
After confirming the cost, we should consider the factors such as our business scope, the thickness of cutting materials and which materials to cut, and then determine the power and workbench size of the laser cutting machine to be purchased.
Power is an important part of the price of fiber laser cutting machine. The higher the power, the higher the price and the greater the work efficiency of the product.
There is a misunderstanding here, that is, some people think that no matter how thick the plate is cut, the greater the power, the better. In fact, it is not.
High power is suitable for cutting thick plates. For example, 12000W can cut carbon steel and stainless steel of more than 50mm. If it is a medium thin plate, select the corresponding medium power.
Whether it is cut well depends not on the power, but on the optical quality.
Nowadays, more and more manufacturers, both large and small, are trying their best to increase their power. In fact, they are looking at people’s psychology.
In fact, the cutting effect of some equipment known as 15000 W and 20000 w may not be better than that of 8000w.
Of course, if you cut thick plates, you must choose high power. If the power is too low, it will not cut through.
At present, the power of fiber laser cutting machine on the market is between 500w-20000w, and the size of worktable can be customized according to the needs of customers.
Therefore, the buyer should select a fiber laser cutting machine with high cost performance after evaluating the output demand according to personal needs.
For example, if you want to cut 1-8mm carbon steel plate, you can choose 1000W laser cutting machine; If there are many times to cut 8mm thick plates, 1500W can be considered, which has high efficiency; If you often cut thin plates, 1000W is OK.
If you need to process aluminum alloy for a long time, it is good to use fiber laser cutting machine.
For specific cutting, you can refer to the following table of cutting parameters of laser cutting machine:
Cutting parameter table of laser cutting machine
|Metal / laser power (W)||1000W||1500W||2000W||3000W||4000W||6000W||8000W||12000W|
|Carbon steel (mm)||1-8||1-12||1-16||1-20||1-22||1-22||1-22||1-25|
|Stainless steel (mm)||1-4||1-4.5||1-6||1-8||1-10||1-16||1-20||1-25|
|Aluminum alloy (mm)||1-2||1-3||1-4||1-6||1-8||1-14||1-16||1-25|
Compared with other cutting systems (such as CO2 laser or plasma cutting machine), the cutting accuracy and efficiency of fiber laser cutting machine are much higher, and it has obvious advantages such as high accuracy (± 0.02mm), high stability and high efficiency.
3. Use cost
Fiber laser cutting machine has the advantages of high stability and long service life.
Under the condition of correct operation and regular maintenance of the machine, the loss of main parts of the machine is very low. The main expenses are electricity, gas and general consumables, which are relatively low expenses.
4. Core components
As we all know, the high precision and high efficiency of optical fiber laser cutting machine are sharp tools for metal processing industry.
However, these technical advantages focus on the accessories of the equipment. Even if the same fiber laser cutting machine adopts different accessories, the final cutting effect will be different
Therefore, if users want to buy a cost-effective fiber laser cutting machine, the matching of its accessories is extremely important.
A laser cutting machine mainly includes six core components:
- Laser source
- Laser cutting head
- Numerical control system
- Laser lens
The configuration of these core components determines the price of the laser cutting machine, especially the quality and quality of the laser, and largely determines the basic price of the laser cutting machine.
Let me teach you how to select the core components of fiber laser cutting machine.
1) Fiber laser source
The performance and working quality of laser cutting machine largely depend on the quality of optical components.
Many people believe that power consumption is an important factor in determining the working efficiency of machines.
But the most important thing is not power, but optical quality.
One that determines the optical quality is the laser. The fiber laser is the head accessory of the fiber laser cutting machine and the core “power source” of the fiber laser cutting machine.
At present, the best fiber laser on the market is: German IPG laser, with photoelectric conversion rate of about 40%; UK SPI laser; USA n-light laser; China Raycus, Max laser, etc.
2) Cutting head
The cutting head of laser cutting machine is a laser output device, which is composed of nozzle, focusing lens and focusing tracking system.
The cutting head of the laser cutting machine will move according to the set cutting path, but the height of the laser cutting head needs to be adjusted and controlled under the conditions of different materials, different thicknesses and different cutting methods.
Judging the cutting head mainly depends on whether the optical lens group can output high-quality laser and whether there is a precise adjustment system.
Famous cutting head brands include Precitec, Raytools, etc.
3) Control system
The control system is the leading operating system of the optical fiber laser cutting machine. Its quality determines the stability of the operating performance of the optical fiber laser cutting machine.
It mainly controls the machine tool to realize the movement of X, Y and Z axes, and also controls the output power of the laser.
The operating system of laser cutting machine is widely used with Cypcut and PA in China. Each company will optimize it to better adapt to its own equipment. This needs to be operated during proofing and testing. In fact, it is relatively simple.
The bed size of the laser cutting machine determines the amount of work you can do with it.
The size of the bed is a permanent feature and cannot be changed.
Therefore, before making a decision, you should be clear about the cutting workload you plan to carry out.
For example, if you have plans to deal with large projects, you should obviously buy a large format laser cutting machine.
Large machine tools can save a considerable part of the loading and unloading time, and the cumulative time cost is also considerable.
The bed of optical fiber laser cutting machine mainly includes plate welding bed, pipe welding bed and casting bed.
However, in order to save costs, mainstream laser cutting machine manufacturers use plate welding bed.
According to the different laser cutting power, the bed thickness varies from 8 to 16mm. For ultra-high power fiber laser cutting opportunities, thicker steel plates are used.
Compared with the casting bed, the plate welding bed will affect the load-bearing, stability and cutting accuracy of the machine to a certain extent.
Therefore, in the case of sufficient budget, try to choose a one-time cast iron bed when purchasing an optical fiber laser cutting machine.
The motor is related to the cutting accuracy of optical fiber laser cutting machine. Some manufacturers choose imported stepper motors, while others are stepper motors produced by joint ventures. Some smaller enterprises usually choose miscellaneous motors.
Servo motor refers to the engine that controls the operation of mechanical components in the servo system. It is an indirect speed change device of auxiliary motor.
The servo motor can control the speed and position accuracy very accurately, and can convert the voltage signal into torque and speed to drive the control object.
High quality servo motor can effectively ensure the cutting accuracy, positioning speed and repeated positioning accuracy of laser cutting machine.
6) Laser lens
Laser lens is related to the power of fiber laser cutting machine. It is divided into imported lens and domestic lens.
Domestic lenses can be divided into those produced with imported materials and those produced with domestic materials. There is a big price gap, and there is also a big gap in service effect and service life.
5. Preliminary selection of optical fiber laser cutting machine manufacturer
After determining the demand, we can go to the market or go to the peers who have purchased the laser cutting machine to see the performance and basic parameters of the machine.
Select several powerful sellers with favorable prices for early communication and proofing, and we can conduct on-the-spot investigation in the later stage.
Conduct more detailed negotiations on the price, training, payment method and after-sales service of the machine.
As for the brand of fiber laser cutting machine, my suggestion is not to blindly pursue the brand.
If you have to choose a brand, remember that Trumpf rank No.1 in the world and Hanslaser rank No.1 in China.
6. After-sale service
In fact, after-sales is often easy to ignore. People only value price, but ignore service.
No matter how good a laser cutting machine is, customers will encounter all kinds of problems in the process of using it.
When customers cannot solve problems by themselves, it is particularly important for the seller to provide timely solutions.
It is very important for laser cutting machine manufacturers to have professional and timely after-sales service. They can provide one-stop service whether it is pre job training during machine operation or maintenance and commissioning of mechanical equipment.
After all, time is money. Delaying one more minute is a loss to users.
Through the above introduction on how to select the fiber laser cutting machine, I believe you already know how to select the machine suitable for you. If you still have some questions, please leave us a message in the comments area.