Belt Drive

A belt drive is a mechanical transmission system that uses a flexible belt to transmit motion or power. The belt is tensioned on a pulley to maintain proper alignment and facilitate efficient transfer of energy.

Belt Drive

There are two types of belt transmission based on their transmission principle: the friction type belt transmission, which is driven by friction between the belt and the pulley, and the timing belt transmission, which is driven by the belt and the teeth on the pulley.

Belt drives have a simple structure, stable transmission, and cushioning vibration absorption. They can transmit power between large shaft spacings and multiple shafts, making them a cost-effective solution that doesn’t require lubrication and is easy to maintain. Consequently, belt drives are widely used in modern mechanical transmission.

The friction type belt transmission can experience overloading and slipping, and the transmission ratio is not very accurate, with a sliding rate of below 2%. However, it has low running noise.

On the other hand, the timing belt drive ensures transmission synchronization, but its absorption capacity for load changes is slightly poor, and it can be noisy when operating at high speeds.

Apart from power transmission, belt drives are sometimes used for transporting materials or performing integral parts.

Overall, belt drives are versatile and reliable solutions for various applications, and selecting the right type of belt transmission depends on the specific needs of the machinery or equipment.

Structural composition

The belt drive usually consists of a drive wheel, a driven wheel and an endless belt that is tensioned on the two wheels.

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Stress composition

The stresses experienced by the belt drive are:

  1. Stress generated by the tension of the tight and loose edges.
  2. Stress generated by centrifugal force.
  3. The bending stress generated by bending on the pulley.


(1) Advantages: smooth transmission, buffer absorption, simple structure, low cost, convenient use and maintenance, good flexibility and flexibility, and overload slip.

(2) Disadvantages: Inaccurate transmission ratio, low belt life, large load on the shaft, large external dimensions of the transmission, and low efficiency.

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