6 Materials Commonly Used in Sheet Metal Fabrication

1. Stainless steel plate

6 Materials Commonly Used in Sheet Metal Fabrication 1

Code: SUS, STAINLESS STEEL

Common Code:

SUS304 (18-8 stainless steel, non-magnetic)

SUS301 (spring stainless steel, slightly magnetic)

SUS430 (magnetic, easy to rust)

Tensile strength: above 53kgf/mm2.

Material thickness: 0.1~10.0mm. It is difficult to buy materials above 10.0mm.

Material width: the maximum width is 5 ‘(1524mm), generally 4’, i.e. 1219mm or 1250mm, and any size smaller than 1524mm can be cut as required.

Material length: any size can be cut as required. Generally 8 ‘, i.e. 2438mm or 2500mm.

Material properties:

1. The metal has white luster, and the surface is not easy to rust.

According to the surface state, it can be divided into fog surface, bright surface, mirror surface, wiredrawing surface, etc.

In order to protect the surface, PVC protective film is often pasted.

2. Generally, no surface treatment is required. Special surface treatment is required for baking paint.

3. It is not suitable for electroplating, but for electrolysis.

4. Suitable for refrigeration, air conditioning, household appliances and decorative structures.

Specific gravity: 7.95

Weight calculation: length (m) × Width (m) × Thickness (mm) × Specific gravity = kg,

E.g:

          SUS304   2.0 × 2.0×1220×2440 Weight: 2.0×1.22×2.44×7.95=44.65kg,

Another example:

          SUS430   1.0×1000×2000  Weight: 1×1×2×7.95=15.9kg.

Note:

1. The general tolerance of material thickness is+0, – 0.08, that is, the measured plate thickness of 2.0mm may be only 1.92mm.

2. Micrometer shall be used to measure the material thickness, and cursor caliper shall not be used.

2. COLD ROLLING STEEL

6 Materials Commonly Used in Sheet Metal Fabrication 2

Code: SPCC, CRS (SPCD: cold plate for drawing, SPCE cold plate for deep drawing)

Hardness: HRB, 1/2H=74 ~ 89 , 1/4H=65 ~ 80 , 1/8H=50 ~ 71, H=above 89

Tensile strength: above 28kgf/mm.

Material thickness: 0.25~3.2mm. Materials above 3.2mm must be customized.

Material width: the maximum width is 5 ‘(1524mm), generally 4’, i.e. 1219mm or 1250mm, and any size smaller than 1524mm can be cut as required.

Material length: any size can be cut as required.

It is generally 8 ‘, i.e. 2438mm or 2500mm.

Material properties:

1. Iron gray luster, the surface is easy to scratch and rust, and attention must be paid to protection and quick change of sequence during processing.

2. Suitable for electroplating (multicolored zinc plating, white zinc plating, nickel plating, tin plating, etc.), paint baking, powder spraying, etc.

Specific gravity: 7.85.

Weight calculation: length (m) × Width (m) × Thickness (mm) × Specific gravity=kg ,

E.g:

          SPCC2.0×1220×2440, Weight: 2.0×1.22×2.44×7.85=46.74kg,

Another example:

          SPCC1.0×1000×2000, Weight: 1×1×2×7.85=15.7kg.

Note:

1. The general tolerance of material thickness is+0, – 0.08, that is, the measured plate thickness of 2.0mm may be only 1.92mm.

2. Micrometer shall be used to measure the material thickness, and cursor caliper shall not be used.

3. In order to prevent the plate from rusting, the surface of the workpiece can be lightly coated with antirust oil after processing, or the workpiece can be covered with an oilcloth.

3. Aluminum

6 Materials Commonly Used in Sheet Metal Fabrication 3

Code: AL, A1100P, A5052H32P, AL6061T6

Common models: A1100P-O (O represents soft material without hardness), A1050P, A5052H32P, AL6061T6, AL6063T5.

Material width: the maximum width is 5 ‘(1524mm), generally 4’, i.e. 1219mm or 1250mm, and any size smaller than 1524mm can be cut as required.

Material length: any size can be cut as required. Generally 8 ‘, i.e. 2438mm or 2500mm.

Material properties:

1. The metal has white luster, and the surface is easy to be oxidized and corroded, so PVC protective film is often pasted on the surface.

2. Surface treatment: sand blasting, wire drawing, or anodizing after polishing (non-conductive, can be dyed into various colors); Chromate oxidation (also known as conductive oxidation, with primary color and golden yellow color).

Specific gravity: 2.75

Weight calculation: length (m) × Width (m) × Thickness (mm) × Specific gravity=kg,

E.g:

          AL   2.0×1220×2440 Weight: 2.0×1.22×2.44×2.75=16.37kg,

Another example:

          AL  1.0×1000×2000 Weight: 1×1×2×2.75=5.5kg

Note:

1. The general tolerance of material thickness is+0, – 0.08, that is, the measured plate thickness of 2.0mm may be only 1.92mm.

2. Micrometer shall be used to measure the material thickness, and cursor caliper shall not be used.

3. Attention shall be paid to the protection of aluminum plate processing, and the surface shall not be scratched. Cracks and knife marks shall be prevented when bending. (If the material is too hard, it can be annealed first or the lower mold groove can be enlarged)

4. Hot-dip galvanized steel plate

6 Materials Commonly Used in Sheet Metal Fabrication 4

Code: SPGC

Hardness: HRB, 1/2H=74 ~ 89, 1/4H=65 ~ 80, 1/8H=50 ~ 71, H=above 89.

Tensile strength: above 40-55kgf/mm2.

Material thickness: 0.4~3.2mm. It is difficult to buy materials above 3.2mm, which are generally replaced by galvanized white zinc.

Material width: the maximum width is 5 ‘(1524mm), generally 4’, i.e. 1219mm or 1250mm, and any size smaller than 1524mm can be cut as required.

Material length: any size can be cut as required. Generally 8 ‘, i.e. 2438mm or 2500mm.

Material properties:

1. The metal is white and glossy, with patterns on it. The surface is not easy to rust, but it will produce white rust spots due to corrosion.

2. Generally, no surface treatment is required.

3. No electroplating (multicolored zinc plating, white zinc plating, nickel plating, tin plating…) is allowed.

4. Suitable for refrigeration, air conditioning, heavy motor and roof structure.

Specific gravity: 8.25

Weight calculation: length (m) × Width (m) × Thickness (mm) × Specific gravity=kg,

E.g:

          SPGC2.0×1220×2440 Weight: 2.0×1.22×2.44×8.25=49.1kg,

Another example:

          SPGC1.0×1000×2000 Weight: 1×1×2×8.25=16.5kg.

Note:

1. The general tolerance of material thickness is+0, – 0.08, that is, the measured plate thickness of 2.0mm may be only 1.92mm.

2. Micrometer shall be used to measure the material thickness, and cursor caliper shall not be used.

3. If bending processing is required, pay attention to whether the zinc layer on the surface falls off, and timely remove the zinc powder from the lower mold.

5. Hot Rolling Steel

6 Materials Commonly Used in Sheet Metal Fabrication 5

Code: SPHC, HRS

Hardness: HRB, 1/2H=74 ~ 89, 1/4H=65 ~ 80, 1/8H=50 ~ 71, H=above 89.

Tensile strength: 41~52kgf/mm or above.

Material thickness: 1.4~6.0mm. The material code above 6mm is SS41.

Material width: the maximum width is 5 ‘(1524mm), generally 4’, i.e. 1219mm or 1250mm, and any size smaller than 1524mm can be cut as required.

Material length: any size can be cut as required. It is generally 8 ‘, i.e. 2438mm or 2500mm.

Material properties:

1. It is dark gray and glossy, and the surface is not easy to scratch, but it is easy to rust, so it must be removed during processing.

2. It is not suitable for electroplating (colorful zinc plating, white zinc plating, nickel plating, tin plating…).

3. Suitable for baking paint, powder spraying and other structural parts.

Specific gravity: 7.85.

Weight calculation: length (m) × Width (m) × Thickness (mm) × Specific gravity=kg,

E.g:

          SPHC2.0×1220×2440 Weight: 2.0×1.22×2.44×7.85=46.74kg ,

Another example:

          SPHC1.0×1000×2000  Weight: 1×1×2×7.85=15.7kg.

Note:

1. The general tolerance of material thickness is+0, – 0.08, that is, the measured plate thickness of 2.0mm may be only 1.92mm.

2. Micrometer shall be used to measure the material thickness, and cursor caliper shall not be used.

3. In order to prevent the plate from rusting, the surface of the workpiece can be lightly coated with antirust oil after processing, or the workpiece can be covered with an oilcloth.

4. If electroplating is required, the surface carbon layer must be removed by sand blasting or wire drawing.

6. Copper

6 Materials Commonly Used in Sheet Metal Fabrication 6

Code: C1020, C1100, C2100, 2200, 2300, 2400 (red copper below) Brass above C2600.     

Common models: C1020P-O (O represents soft material, without hardness), C1020P-1/2H (Vickers hardness HV75 ~ 120),

1/4H, HV=60~100, H, HV=above 80.

Tensile strength: O material=more than 20kgf/mm2, 1/4H material=22 ~ 28 kgf/mm2,

1/2H material=25 ~ 32kgf/mm2, H material=28 kgf/mm2 or more.

Material thickness: above 0.3mm

Width of material: generally 2 ‘, i.e. 610mm, and it must be customized when exceeding.

Material length: generally 5 ‘, i.e. 1524mm.

Material properties:

1. # 1xxx copper content 99.9%, (also known as electrolytic copper or collector copper) has excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good pumping processability, good welding, corrosion resistance, weather resistance, and metallic red luster. It is suitable for electrical and chemical industries.

# 2xxx copper content 60~96%, (also known as brass or bus copper) ductility, processability, electroplating home is often used for wiring equipment, dashboard, cartridge case, etc.

2. Surface treatment: wire drawing, or pickling after polishing, copper plating, tin plating, nickel plating.

Specific gravity: 8.9

Weight calculation: length (m) × Width (m) × Thickness (mm) × Specific gravity=kg,

E.g:

          C1020P1/4H   2.0×600×1500 weight: 2.0×0.6×1.5×8.9=16kg   , 

Another example: C1020P1/2H  1.0×1000×1000 weight: 1×1××8.9=8.9kg.

Note:

1. The general tolerance of material thickness is+0, – 0.08, that is, the measured plate thickness of 2.0mm may be only 1.92mm.

2. Micrometer shall be used to measure the material thickness, not cursor caliper

7. Introduction to common plates

7.1 Cold rolled ordinary steel sheet

Cold rolled ordinary steel sheet is the abbreviation of ordinary carbon structural steel cold rolled sheet, which is called cold plate for short.

It is a steel sheet with a thickness of less than 4mm made from ordinary carbon structural steel hot rolled sheet through further cold rolling.

As it is rolled at room temperature, no oxide skin will be produced, so its surface quality is good, dimensional accuracy is high, and with annealing treatment, its mechanical and technological properties are good.

It is the most commonly used metal material for sheet metal fabrication.

Common brands: GB (Q195, Q215, Q235, Q275), Japanese JIS (SPCC, SPCD, SPCE).

7.2 Continuous electro galvanized steel sheet

Continuous electro galvanized steel sheet, commonly known as electrolytic plate, refers to that under the action of electric field on the electro galvanized operation line, zinc is deposited from the deep solution of zinc salt to the prepared cold plate surface, and a layer of zinc coating will be produced on the steel plate surface, making the steel plate have good corrosion resistance.

Grade: GB (DX1, DX2, DX3, DX4), JIS (SECC, SECD, SECE).

7.3 Continuously hot-dip galvanized steel sheet

Continuously hot-dip galvanized steel sheet, commonly referred to as galvanized sheet or white iron sheet, has beautiful surface, block or leaf shaped crystal pattern, firm coating, and excellent atmospheric corrosion resistance.

At the same time, the steel plate has good welding performance and cold forming performance. Compared with the surface of galvanized sheet, its coating is thicker, mainly used for sheet metal parts with strong corrosion resistance requirements.

Grade: GB (Zn100-PT, Zn200-SC, Zn275-JY) Japanese JIS (SGCC, SGCD1, SGCD2, SGCD3)

7.4 Stainless steel plate

Stainless steel plate is a kind of steel that is resistant to weak corrosion media such as air, steam and water and chemical etching media such as acid, alkali and salt.

In practical applications, steel resistant to weak corrosion medium is often called stainless steel, while steel resistant to chemical medium is called acid resistant steel.

Stainless steel is generally divided into:

1. Ferritic stainless steel.

It contains 12%~30% chromium.

Its corrosion resistance, toughness and weldability increase with the increase of chromium content, and its chloride stress corrosion resistance is superior to other types of stainless steel.

2. Austenitic stainless steel.

Chromium content is more than 18%, and it also contains about 8% nickel and a small amount of molybdenum, titanium, nitrogen and other elements.

It has good comprehensive performance and can resist corrosion of various mediums.

3. Austenitic ferritic duplex stainless steel.

It has the advantages of both austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, and has superplasticity.

4. Martensitic stainless steel.

High strength, but poor plasticity and weldability.

It should be noted that the strength of stainless steel plate is relatively high, and the tool wear of numerical control punch is relatively large, which is generally not suitable for numerical punching.

Grade:

There are many kinds of stainless steel, and an austenitic stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9Ti) Japanese standard JIS (SUS) is commonly used in sheet metal processing

7.5 Aluminum plate

Aluminum is a silver white light metal with good thermal conductivity, conductivity and ductility.

Pure aluminum has very low strength and cannot be used as structural materials.

Aluminum alloy plates are generally used for sheet metal processing.

According to the content of alloy elements, aluminum plates can be divided into eight series, namely 1000 series, 2000 series~8000 series, and 2000 series, 3000 series and 5000 series are commonly used.

2000 series is a copper aluminum alloy, characterized by high hardness, also known as duralumin;

It can be used as various medium strength parts and components.

The 3000 series is a manganese aluminum alloy with good rust resistance, so it is also called rust proof aluminum;

5000 series is a magnesium aluminum alloy, characterized by low density, high tensile strength and high elongation.

In the same area, the weight of aluminum magnesium alloy is lower than that of other series.

Common brands include: 3A21 (old brand LF21), 5A02 (old brand LF2), 2A06 (old brand LY6)

7.6 Copper plate

Red copper is a common name for pure copper.

It has a purple appearance and has excellent conductivity, thermal conductivity, ductility and corrosion resistance.

However, it is expensive. It is mainly used as a conductive and thermal conductive material.

It is generally used for parts that need to carry large current on the power supply.

Red copper has low strength and cannot be used as a bonding component.

Grade: T1, T2, T3.

7.7 Brass plate

Brass is a kind of copper zinc alloy, which has high strength and excellent cold and hot workability, but is prone to corrosion cracking, relatively cheap, and widely used.

Grade: H59, H62, H70.

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