Are you curious about the technology behind laser cutting machines and the various cutting techniques they employ? Do you want to know how to operate them safely and what to look for in terms of cutting quality? Look no further!
In this article, we will delve into the world of laser cutting machines, exploring their structure, cutting methods, and key technologies.
We will also discuss the role of auxiliary gas, safety precautions, and evaluate the cutting quality standards.
So, buckle up and get ready to learn all about this fascinating and innovative technology!
What is the “flying light path” in a laser cutting machine?
Generally, to ensure stability of the output, the laser generator is fixed, which results in a relatively fixed laser transmission direction. However, to meet various demands, means to change the laser transmission direction are often employed, making the laser transmission dynamic.
Common methods include the use of reflectors and optical fibers.
The light source remains stationary, while the reflector and focus lens move, allowing for a stable power output to be maintained. This results in a dynamic light path.
What are the cutting techniques of laser cutting machine?
The cutting techniques are shown as follows:
The Fusion Cutting process involves shining a laser light onto a plate, causing partial areas to melt and achieve the cutting effect when the laser power reaches a critical value.
In Vaporization Cutting, high-powered laser beams are utilized to heat the material, preventing the formation of slag burrs that result from heat conduction during melting. This process results in a relatively clean edge, as some materials are vaporized into steam.
Oxidation Cutting involves using the heat generated from the chemical reaction between the oxygen blown out from the nozzle and the laser beams to perform the processing. This method is suitable for brittle materials that can be easily damaged by heat, as they can be cut at a high speed using the laser beams.
However, this process can also result in an obvious thermal gradient and severe mechanical deformation, causing materials to crack. As a result, Oxidation Cutting is also referred to as Controllable Fracture Cutting.
What are the key technologies for CO2 laser cutting?
Autofocus System Technology: The smaller the focal depth, the smaller the diameter of the laser direct focus. Therefore, precise control of the focus is crucial for cutting the surface of materials.
Cutting and Drilling Technology: In any type of cutting processing technology, except for cutting from the edge, there is a commonly known position referred to as “the knife” on the cutting material. This position involves drilling first, followed by subsequent cutting.
Nozzle Design and Airflow Technology: When using a laser to cut materials, airflow is generated in the nozzle, typically using “air”, “nitrogen”, or “oxygen”. This not only improves the cutting speed and appearance, but also helps to remove slag, achieving two goals with one action.
What are the notices in the operating laser machine?
In my opinion, there are:
Because laser beams are invisible to the human eye, it is important not to stare at them for extended periods of time, as this can be dangerous. Additionally, the focus lens of a laser cutting machine contains harmful elements such as ZnSe, so it is recommended to avoid frequent contact and to have scrap lenses disposed of professionally rather than simply throwing them away.
It is safe to process materials such as carbon steel or iron using the laser cutting machine. However, if a large amount of aluminum alloy or other alloys are being processed, it is important to wear a mask to protect against inhaling the cutting dust. Due to the strong reflection of aluminum plates, a protective device has been added to the laser head to prevent injury.
Is laser cutting machine harmful to the human body?
In general, there are potential hazards associated with any job, but the risk of harm can vary. No job is completely safe and the level of danger is often relative.
For instance, laser cutting is considered to be more environmentally friendly compared to plasma and flame cutting. Plasma cutting machines emit a large amount of dust, smoke, and bright light, requiring the use of dust removal equipment.
On the other hand, laser cutting machines produce less dust, emit less intense light, and generate minimal noise, making them more eco-friendly.
However, it’s important to note that new laser cutting machine operators may be inclined to stare at the cutting head, which can cause eye strain and discomfort if done for an extended period of time. To mitigate this risk, some manufacturers may provide protective glasses for the operator.
Additionally, laser cutting machines are highly advanced and can be operated without human intervention, reducing the need for operators to stare at the cutting head.
What are the structural classifications of laser cutting machines?
In terms of structure, laser cutting machines are divided into:
- Bench laser cutting machine
This type of laser cutting machine is commonly seen. The laser is positioned on one side and transferred through the external light path to the laser cutting head, with a machining area of 1.5 x 3 meters or 2 x 4 meters.
Based on its specific design, bench laser cutting machines can be categorized into several types, including cantilever, gantry, and hybrid types. These machines are primarily used for processing sheet metal and are utilized in a variety of industries, including medical equipment, lamp ornaments, food machinery, and others that require thin plate processing.
- Gantry laser cutting machine
This type of laser cutting machine uses a laser that moves with the operation of the machine, which ensures a consistent light path.
It has a large cutting range, with a width of 2-6 meters and a length of dozens of meters. It is primarily used in the construction machinery, shipbuilding, locomotive, and other heavy industries.
It is designed for cutting plates with a thickness of 3mm-25mm.
How is laser cutting machine divided in terms of cutting workpiece?
In terms of cutting material, it is simply divided into three types：
The power of the laser is very large, ranging from 500 watts to 3000 watts or higher, which is used for cutting carbon steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminum, alloy steel and other metal materials
- Non-metal laser cutting machine.
The power of the laser is generally small, mainly used for cutting acrylic, leather, cloth and other non-metallic materials.
- Tube laser cutting machine for cutting tubes, having exclusive and non-exclusive ones. The non-exclusive ones can be used for cutting plates and tubes.
What is the role of auxiliary gas for laser cutting machine?
There are four points:
In most instances, air, oxygen, or nitrogen are utilized. The primary aim is to remove residue and attain the optimal cutting outcome.
When utilizing gases to clear away metal slag, it can safeguard the lens and prevent the slag from impacting the cutting quality by preventing it from adhering to the lens.
Cutting with nitrogen results in a smooth cutting surface with no burrs or slag, which can be referred to as fine cutting.
When cutting with oxygen, it can aid combustion, react with the material, and increase the cutting speed.
What are the standards for evaluating the cutting quality of the laser cutting machine?
- Surface roughness of the material being cut.
- The size and amount of slag at the cutting edge of the material after cutting.
- Perpendicularity and slope of the cutting edge.
- The size of the initial circular cut at the cutting edge.
- The width of the cut strip.
- The levelness of the cut thickness.
- Consistency of cut thickness with the same power source and motor power.