Laser Cutting Machine Troubleshooting: 100+ Problems & Solutions

Laser cutting revolutionized manufacturing, but even the most advanced machines encounter issues. In this blog post, we dive into common problems faced by laser plate cutting machines and provide step-by-step troubleshooting solutions. Our expert mechanical engineer breaks down each issue, from cutting inaccuracies to abnormal noises, offering clear explanations and practical fixes. Whether you’re an operator or maintenance professional, this guide will help you quickly diagnose and resolve laser cutting machine problems, ensuring optimal performance and minimizing downtime.

A Knowledge Quiz of Laser Cutting Technology

Table Of Contents

Laser Cutting Machine Problems 100+ Proven Solutions

Laser Plate Cutting Machine Troubleshooting

1.1. Cutting has sharp corners Solution steps

Solution steps (if the previous step is ineffective, proceed to the next step):

  1. Compensate for reverse backlash (change in platform configuration);
  2. Check the gear and rack engagement;
  3. Inspect motor installation, ensure spacer installation is correct and couplings are securely tightened;
  4. Check if the slider screws are firmly tightened.

1.2. Cutting corrugation issue

Solution steps (if the previous step is ineffective, proceed to the next step):

  1. Press the material by hand while cutting and observe the cutting effect;
  2. Check if there is instability or wobbling in the machine’s leveling pads and table framework; do not use unsteady or unreliable profiles under the pads;
  3. Adjust cutting parameters;
    a. Lower the following sensitivity in the software settings;
    b. Increase vibration suppression in the software settings;
    c. Adjust servo parameters;
  4. Compensate for reverse backlash (change in platform configuration);
  5. Check if the cylinder locks the exchange platform;
  6. Ensure the laser head and related components are firmly fixed;
  7. Inspect motor installation, ensure spacer installation is correct, and couplings are securely tightened;
  8. Check if the slider screws are firmly tightened;
  9. Check the engagement of X and Y axes, requiring 0.06-0.08mm;
  10. Replace the X and Y reduction gears and motors.

1.3 Poor cutting accuracy

Solution steps (if the previous step is ineffective, proceed to the next one):

  1. Ensure the laser head and related components are firmly fixed;
  2. Adjust process parameters and servo parameters;
  3. Compensate for reverse backlash (change in platform configuration);
  4. Check the engagement of X and Y axes, requiring 0.06-0.08mm;
  5. Check the verticality of X and Y axes, 0.03mm;
  6. Inspect motor installation, ensure spacer installation is correct, and couplings are securely tightened;
  7. Check if the slider screws are firmly tightened;
  8. Use a laser interferometer.

1.4 Abnormal noise issues

Solution steps (if the previous step is ineffective, proceed to the next one):

  1. Check the location of the abnormal noise, and if caused by sheet metal parts or dust cloth, trim the sheet metal parts and dust cloth;
  2. Z-axis noise:
    a. Check the flatness of the laser head fixing plate, replace if necessary;
    b. Check the center height of both ends of the screw and the coaxiality of the nut seat, adjust with copper shims if required;
    c. Inspect the couplings and make sure they are tightened;
    d. Check the motor, adjust parameters, inspect brake circuit until replacing the motor and servo.
  3. X-axis noise:
    a. Check the gear rack engagement gap: 0.06-0.08mm;
    b. Use a rack gauge to check the parallelism between the rack and the guide rail on the same side, ≤ 0.03mm/1000mm;
    c. Check the flatness of the machine head installation with the slider, requiring an error of 0.03mm; replace the machine head if the error exceeds 0.2mm;
    d. Check the parallelism of the guide rails, straightness of the guide rail should be ≤0.02mm/1000mm, after installation ensure the guide rail is in close contact with the bearing surface, use 0.02mm feeler gauge to detect, and the feeler gauge should not enter;
    e. Check the motor, adjust parameters until replacing the motor and servo; f. Replace the slider.
  4. Y-axis noise:
    a. Check the gear rack engagement gap: 0.06-0.08mm;
    b. Use a rack gauge to check the parallelism between the rack and the guide rail on the same side, ≤ 0.03mm/1000mm;
    c. Check the flatness of the beam installation with the slider, requiring an error of 0.03mm; replace the beam if the error exceeds 0.2mm;
    d. Check the parallelism of the guide rails, straightness of the guide rail should be ≤0.02mm/1000mm, after installation ensure the guide rail is in close contact with the bearing surface, use 0.02mm feeler gauge to detect, and the feeler gauge should not enter;
    e. Check the motor, adjust parameters until replacing the motor and servo; f. Replace the slider.
  5. For abnormal noises from peripheral accessories, such as water chiller fans, replace them directly.

1.5 Diagonal discrepancy

Solution steps (if the previous step is ineffective, proceed to the next one):

  1. Check which direction has a problem in the X and Y axes dimensions; the error for both the 500mm side length and the diagonal should not exceed 0.1mm;
  2. Compensate for reverse backlash (change in platform configuration);
  3. Adjust the diagonal compensation parameter;
  4. Check the engagement of X and Y axes, requiring 0.06-0.08mm;
  5. Check the verticality of X and Y axes, 0.03mm; if the accuracy is satisfactory, adjust the verticality according to the actual diagonal deviation.

1.6 X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis motion stalling

Solution steps (if the previous step is ineffective, proceed to the next one):

  1. Adjust motor drive parameters;
  2. Inspect motor installation, ensure spacer installation is correct, and couplings are securely tightened;
  3. Replace the motor if there are issues with the motor itself;
  4. Check the motor, adjust parameters, inspect brake circuit until replacing the motor and servo.

1.7 Cutting effect issues

Solution steps:

Structural steel: Cutting with O2

DefectsPossible CausesSolutions
No burrs, consistent lead-in lines Appropriate powerSuitable cutting speed 
Significant bottom lead-in line offset, wider bottom kerf Cutting speed too highCutting power too lowGas pressure too lowFocus too highDecrease cutting speedIncrease cutting powerIncrease gas pressureLower the focus
Bottom burrs similar to slag, forming droplet shape and easy to remove
 
Cutting speed too highGas pressure too lowFocus too highDecrease cutting speedIncrease gas pressureLower the focus
Connected metal burrs can be removed as a whole piece Focus too highLower the focus
Metal burrs on the bottom surface are difficult to remove Cutting speed too highGas pressure too lowImpure gasFocus too highDecrease cutting speedIncrease gas pressureUse purer gasLower the focus
Burrs on one side only Incorrect laser coaxial alignmentNozzle orifice defectAdjust laser coaxial alignmentReplace nozzle
Material ejected from the top Power too lowCutting speed too highIncrease powerDecrease cutting speed
Cutting surface not precise Gas pressure too highNozzle damagedNozzle diameter too largePoor material qualityDecrease gas pressureReplace nozzleInstall appropriate nozzleUse materials with smooth and even surfaces

Stainless steel: Cutting with high-pressure N2

DefectsPossible CausesSolutions
Producing droplet-shaped small, regular burrs
 
Focus too lowCutting speed too highRaise the focusDecrease cutting speed
Long, irregular, filament-like burrs on both sides, and large plate surface discoloration Cutting speed too lowFocus too highGas pressure too lowMaterial too hotIncrease cutting speedLower the focusIncrease gas pressureCool down the material
Long, irregular burrs on only one side of the cutting edge
 
Incorrect laser coaxial alignmentFocus too highGas pressure too lowSpeed too lowAdjust laser coaxial alignmentLower the focusIncrease gas pressureIncrease speed
Cutting edge turns yellowOxygen impurities in the nitrogen gasUse high-quality nitrogen gas
Beam diverging at the starting pointAcceleration too highFocus too lowMelted material not ejected properlyDecrease accelerationRaise the focusPierce round holes
Rough kerfNozzle damagedLens dirtyReplace nozzleClean the lens, and replace if necessary
Material ejected from the top
 
Power too lowCutting speed too highGas pressure too highIncrease powerDecrease cutting speedReduce gas pressure

1.8 Component interference issue

Solution steps (proceed to the next step if the previous one is ineffective):

First, make a judgment, consult quality control inspectors, review drawings, if the component does not match the drawing, return it to the warehouse and replace it with a qualified component. If it matches the drawing, consult technical support personnel to verify the drawing and provide a specific solution. List of potential solutions:

  1. If there is interference with the gearboxes in the E-series exchange platform, cut the interfering part if it does not affect the appearance.
  2. If there is interference between the E-series gearbox and the dust cloth, install spacers at the bottom mounting holes to move the gearbox outward.
  3. If the PT-series Y-axis drag chain seat is an older version, re-drill the mounting holes.
  4. If the drag chain seat box in the PT-series Y-axis drag chain seat interferes with the bed during movement, modify the installation hole direction on the crossbeam to tilt the drag chain.
  5. If the PT large enclosure sliding door operates abnormally and is not flush with other panels, install spacers. …….

1.9 Installation issues

Solution steps:

  1. Carefully review the 3D assembly or subassembly drawings.
  2. Review the assembly process.
  3. If there are no technical documents, contact technical support personnel.

1.10 Interference issues

Solution steps:

  1. Black screen on the display: First, check if the ground wire is properly connected, if shielded cables are used, test with added ferrite beads, and try replacing the industrial computer.
  2. Distorted display with snowflakes on the screen: This issue occurs more frequently in the I-series machines. Check if ferrite beads are installed on the VGA cable, separate the main circuit of the servo driver and the VGA cable, and avoid running them in the same cable tray.
  3. Poor calibration results for tube machines: There should be a connecting plate between the tube bed and the plate bed, and the equipment must be properly grounded.

1.11 Chiller alarm

Solution steps (proceed to the next step if the previous one is ineffective):

  1. Check the chiller display screen for alarm information: Common alarms include low liquid level, flow, and temperature alarms. For low liquid level, add water; for flow alarms, check for blockages or leaks in the pipeline, and inspect the chiller’s frequency; for temperature alarms, check the ambient temperature, filter blockage, and potential damage to the temperature sensor.
  2. Determine if it’s a wiring issue or a software setting issue based on the input point status of the adapter board.
  3. Check for incorrect wiring (normally open or normally closed).
  4. Review the chiller alarm settings in the platform configuration.

1.12 Z-axis limit alarm

Solution steps (proceed to the next step if the previous one is ineffective):

  1. Determine if it’s a wiring issue or a software setting issue based on the input point status of the adapter board.
  2. Check for incorrect wiring.
  3. Review the limit settings in the platform configuration.
  4. Replace the limit switch.

1.13 Driver alarm

Solution steps:

  1. A.710, A.910, and A.720 overload: Check if the three-phase sequence is correct, if parameter settings are correct, if any wires are disconnected, and if mechanical transmission is functioning properly.
  2. A.F10 power line phase loss: Check if parameter Pn00B is set to single-phase or three-phase and if there are any disconnected power supply lines to the motor.
  3. A.900 excessive position deviation: Power off and restart, initialize the driver and reset the parameters, and check if mechanical transmission is jammed or if the backlash is too large.
  4. A.840 encoder data alarm: Encoder malfunction, restart the power supply, check if the encoder wiring is good, and if the shielded cable is properly grounded.
  5. Driver quality failure, replace the driver.

1.14 Tripping issue

Solution steps:

  1. Check for short circuits or grounded cables in the main circuit.
  2. Check for short circuits or grounding in the driver power line.

1.15 Cutting software error

  1. Uninstall and reinstall the cutting software.
  2. Switch to a lower or higher version of the software.

1.16 Wiring error

  1. Check the circuit according to the electrical schematic diagram.
  2. Use a multimeter to test cable continuity and apply the elimination method to find the source of the fault.

Laser Tube Cutting Machine Troubleshooting

Laser Tube Cutting Machine Troubleshooting

2.1 Poor cutting accuracy with manual chuck

Solution steps (proceed to the next step if the previous one is ineffective):

  1. Check the verticality of the adjustment screw hole in the front chuck jaws; replace the part if the verticality is not satisfactory.
  2. Check that the coaxiality of the front and rear chucks is ≤0.15.
  3. Ensure that the components are securely connected according to the bolt tightening torque requirements. Method: Attach a dial indicator to the rear chuck while the front chuck remains stationary and rotate the rear chuck. Check its coaxiality. If the coaxiality is unsatisfactory, adjust the front chuck up, down, left, or right until the coaxiality meets the standard.

2.2 Poor cutting accuracy with electric chuck

Solution steps (proceed to the next step if the previous one is ineffective):

  1. Check whether the precision pipe being cut is standard, with the pipe accuracy based on GB-17395-1988-E3 grade and a total length bending grade of 0.1%. Replace the pipe if it is not standard.
  2. Check whether the clamping of the pipe material is correct.
  3. Check for axial movement in the front chuck screw. If there is axial movement, eliminate it by adding shims at the screw support bearing.
  4. Check for movement in the front chuck jaws along the Y-axis of the machine tool. If movement is present, replace the locking sleeve.
  5. Check the parallelism and verticality of the front chuck jaws. Method: Use an aluminum rectangular tube, clamp the rear chuck, and leave a gap between the front chuck jaws and the rectangular tube. The gap in all four directions should be uniform at ≤±0.05. Use the rectangular tube to judge the parallelism and verticality of the jaws by observing the gap between them. If the jaws are not parallel and vertical, adjust the front chuck jaws.
  6. Check whether the rear chuck jaws are securely fixed. If there is any loosening, tighten the loose screws.
  7. Check the roundness and repeatability positioning accuracy of the front and rear chuck jaws, with ↗≤0.15. If the roundness and repeatability positioning accuracy are out of tolerance, adjust the front and rear chuck jaws. When checking with the dial indicator, record the maximum position of the runout and adjust the jaw inward at the maximum position. When adjusting the jaws, try to adjust only one side.
  8. If all the above factors have been checked and there are no issues, inspect the coaxiality of the front and rear chucks. The coaxiality of the front and rear chucks should be ≤0.08. Method: Attach a dial indicator to the rear chuck and measure the inner circle and end face of the front chuck. Observe the runout values on the dial indicator to determine the coaxiality and end face runout of the front and rear chucks. If the coaxiality and end face runout values are out of tolerance, adjust the front chuck left, right, up, or down until the coaxiality and end face runout meet the standard.
  9. Replace the chuck.

2.3 Cutting start points do not coincide

Solution steps (proceed to the next step if the previous one is ineffective):

  1. Check if the current value of the front chuck is too high.
  2. Check the coaxiality of the front and rear chucks if they are on different axes; it should be ≤0.15.
  3. Check the runout value of the front chuck end face with ↗≤0.1. Method: Attach a dial indicator to the rear chuck and measure the inner circle and end face of the front chuck. Observe the runout values on the dial indicator to determine the coaxiality and end face runout of the front and rear chucks. If the coaxiality and end face runout values are out of tolerance, adjust the front chuck left, right, up, or down until the coaxiality and end face runout meet the standard.
  4. Check if the rear chuck spindle has axial movement.

2.4 Cutting corrugation issue

Refer to Chapter 1 Tube Cutting Machine Problem 1.2.

2.5 Large edge-finding error

Solution steps (proceed to the next step if the previous one is ineffective):

  1. Check if the laser head is vertical; replace the laser head connection plate if it is not vertical.
  2. Eliminate interference caused by the current in the front and rear chucks by connecting them to the machine bed with copper wires.

2.6 Interference issue

Refer to Chapter 1 Sheet Cutting Machine Problem 1.10.

2.7 Water cooling machine alarm

Refer to Chapter 1 Sheet Cutting Machine Problem 1.11.

2.8 Z-axis limit alarm

Refer to Chapter 1 Sheet Cutting Machine Problem 1.12.

2.9 Driver alarm

Refer to Chapter 1 Sheet Cutting Machine Problem 1.13.

2.10 Tripping issue

Refer to Chapter 1 Sheet Cutting Machine Problem 1.14.

2.11 Cutting software error

Refer to Chapter 1 Sheet Cutting Machine Problem 1.15.

2.12 Wiring error

Refer to Chapter 1 Sheet Cutting Machine Problem 1.16.

Troubleshooting High-Power Laser Cutting

1. State of the High-Power Laser Cutting Market

With the evolution of the laser industry and changes in downstream industry demands, high-power laser cutting equipment has gradually become a focal point of market interest.

With unparalleled advantages in speed and thickness, high-power laser cutting has now garnered widespread market recognition.

However, as high-power laser cutting technology is still in its early stages of widespread adoption, some operators are not fully proficient in managing this cutting process, and often find themselves at a loss when faced with issues during production debugging.

To address these problems in high-power cutting, cutting process technicians offer a few troubleshooting tips to help you adjust to the right laser cutting process parameters (Figure 1).

This will not only reduce the losses brought about by defective workpieces, but also enhance your cost-effectiveness from another perspective.

Figure 1: Cutting of Carbon Steel with 30kW Laser

2. Elimination of Defects

There are many reasons why high-power lasers can produce defective workpieces during the cutting process. The main issues can be diagnosed from the following four aspects.

(1) Basic Troubleshooting

If poor cutting results are detected, check for the following issues first:

1. Are the lenses contaminated?

2. Is the nozzle damaged?

3. Is the light centered on the nozzle?

4. Are there any leaks or damages in the ceramic body?

(2) Methods to Eliminate Sectional Stripes

1. Possible reasons:

Incorrect nozzle selection—too big of a nozzle; incorrect air pressure setting—overburning with stripes due to too high pressure; incorrect cutting speed—overburning caused by too slow or too fast speed.

2. Solutions:

Change the nozzle, opt for a smaller diameter nozzle, for instance, a high-speed D1.4 nozzle for 16mm carbon steel bright cutting, and a high-speed D1.6 nozzle for 20mm carbon steel bright cutting; reduce the cutting air pressure to improve the cut section quality; adjust the cutting speed, so that the power matches the cutting speed to achieve the effect shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Comparative Optimization Diagram of Cross-Sectional Stripes

(3) Methods to Eliminate Bottom Slag

1. Possible Causes:

The nozzle used may be too small, cutting focus mismatched; air pressure too low or too high, cutting speed too fast; poor material quality of the plate, bad plate quality, small nozzles have difficulty removing slag.

2. Solutions:

Replace with a larger diameter nozzle, adjust the focus to the appropriate position; increase or decrease air pressure until the airflow is suitable; choose good quality plate material. This can achieve the effect shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Comparison Chart of Bottom Slag Optimization

(4) Methods to Eliminate Bottom Burrs

1. Possible Causes:

The nozzle diameter is too small to meet the machining requirements; the negative defocus is mismatched and should be increased and adjusted to the appropriate position; the air pressure is too low, resulting in bottom burrs and insufficient cutting.

2. Solutions:

Use a larger diameter nozzle to increase the airflow; increase the negative defocus to enable the cutting section to reach the bottom position; increase the air pressure to reduce the bottom burrs. This can achieve the effect shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Comparison Chart of Bottom Burr Optimization

3. How to Determine if Cutting Speed is Appropriate According to Sparks

Figure 5: Spark Diffusion Diagram in Laser Cutting

(1) Appropriate Cutting Speed: The cutting sparks diffuse downwards, resulting in a smooth cutting surface without residue at the bottom.

(2) Excessive Cutting Speed: The cutting sparks tilt.

(3) Insufficient Cutting Speed: The cutting sparks do not diffuse and are few, clustering together.

In response to these issues, the power of the laser cutting machine (see Figure 6) is compatible with the most widely used 20,000 to 30,000 watts in the current sheet metal processing market. With bilateral servo motors, it offers swift speeds, precise positioning, and smooth operation.

Figure 6: High Power Laser Cutter

4. Conclusion

The high cutting speed is a significant advantage of laser cutting and the primary reason many sheet metal processing users choose laser cutters. However, faster isn’t always better. Only by controlling the appropriate cutting speed can a smooth, slag-free cut surface and high-quality workpieces be achieved.

The power of the laser impacts the speed at which the laser equipment cuts the sheet metal, and this cutting speed, in turn, affects the quality of the sheet metal cutting. Under fixed laser power, an optimum range of cutting speeds exists. Speeds that are either too fast or too slow can adversely affect the smoothness of the cut cross-section.

Other 63 Laser Cutting Machine Troubleshooting Guide

Laser cutting machines often encounter malfunctions during use. Without guidance from a professional, it can be difficult for us to accurately determine the source of the problem in the laser cutting equipment. We can only rely on our own experience to figure it out.

However, when some issues arise for the first time, we may feel at a loss and even struggle to describe the problem clearly when consulting the manufacturer’s after-sales support.

To help you out, I have carefully selected some common laser cutting machine issues and their corresponding sources or solutions.

1. Poor cutting quality or inability to cut through?

Potential causes include low power settings, small potentiometer adjustments, misaligned optics, dirty lenses, improperly installed focus lenses, focal length issues, laser power supply problems, laser tube power attenuation, high water temperature, and unstable voltage. Address these issues step by step based on the actual situation.

2. Unable to connect to the device?

Check if the board drivers are installed, if the USB or Ethernet cables are properly connected, if the cables are damaged, if the adapter board is faulty, and other issues related to the board.

3. Machine returns to the wrong origin when powered on?

The origin switch may be faulty.

4. Cutting shape deformation and overlapping cuts?

Possible causes include loose synchronous wheel screws, broken motor wires, a faulty motor, driver issues, and voltage problems.

5. Device won’t start, and the indoor circuit breaker trips when powered on?

Check if the emergency stop button is released, if the external circuit is connected, if the device’s internal circuit breaker is closed, and if you hear a “pop” sound when powering on. If so, inspect the main contactor and control transformer.

Additionally, check for water leakage in the water protection system causing a short circuit in the laser power supply (e.g., JGHY12570 water protection installed on the side with the laser power supply right below), a short circuit in the 107 water pump, or the use of an undersized indoor circuit breaker.

6. High-voltage wire arcing?

This issue can be quite troublesome. It is recommended to add a high-voltage insulating sleeve over the high-voltage wire.

7. Cutting graphic size too large or too small?

Check if the output graphic size is consistent, if there are changes in the Z-axis height position, and if calibration files need adjustments.

8. Different colors in the center and around the cut image?

Adjust the focusing coefficient and the W-axis focus point.

9. Damaged marks or coarser spots during marking?

Check the dynamics and DA board.

10. Marking graphic position offset?

Check for X or Y-axis displacement in the scanning mirror, find the center point, and adjust the XY-axis position according to the actual offset direction.

11. Scanning mirror’s XY-axis swings randomly when powered on, and the dynamic motor makes abnormal noises?

Replace the ±12±15V switch power supply; replace the ±12±28V switch power supply.

12. No laser output?

Check if the chiller’s return water flow is normal, if there are changes in the W-axis position, if the DC48V32A laser power supply is functioning properly, and other issues related to the laser tube.

13. No display on the control panel when powered on?

Check if the 5V12V24V switch power supply is functioning properly and inspect the display panel.

14. Control panel malfunctions and the machine doesn’t return to the origin when powered on?

Replace the offline control card.

15. Z-axis doesn’t feed material or moves weakly?

Potential causes include issues with the Z-axis feed motor, driver problems, bearings, or foreign objects causing obstruction.

16. Glass tube doesn’t emit light?

The output control of the glass tube mainly includes the laser tube, laser power supply, water circulation system, and output signal. The output signal consists of the PWM output signal from the control card, water protection signal, and door switch signal.

If the laser tube doesn’t emit light, focus on the laser tube, laser power supply, water circulation system, and output signal.

First, check if the laser power supply is functioning normally, if there are any abnormalities in the inner and outer tubes of the laser tube, and if the water circulation system is normal.

If not, replace or adjust accordingly. If everything is normal, consider the output signal.

First, test the laser tube and laser power supply using the short-circuit signal method. If this works, there are no issues with the laser tube or laser power supply, and the problem lies with the water protection switch, relay, door switch, or control card’s PWM signal.

If this method fails, the issue is with the laser tube or laser power supply, and you can use the replacement method to solve the problem.

17. RF laser tube doesn’t emit light?

Ensure the water circulation is clear and the laser power supply starts normally.

First, test if the 48V DC voltage from the laser power supply is normal. Check the conductivity of pins 4 and 13 on the laser tube’s 25-pin connector; conductivity indicates that the water protection signal is normal. If not, check the water protection.

Test the voltage between pins 7 and 20; a DC voltage of 4-5V when not pressing preset or start and 1-3V when pressing preset or start indicates a normal signal (low-level conduction).

If the water, power supply, and these two signals are normal, it’s generally a laser tube issue. If the signals are abnormal, it indicates a control card issue or a circuit problem.

18. RF laser tube replacement shows “laser tube connection error”?

If the connector (internal wires are not desoldered or short-circuited), power supply wires (left positive, right negative, and ground connected to the negative terminal), and water connections are normal, and the device still can’t connect properly after restarting the chiller and equipment, it’s generally an issue with the 25-pin connector’s connection circuit board or incompatibility, such as encrypted and non-encrypted tubes not being compatible with the circuit board.

19. Cutting machine misaligned cuts?

(Overcut or colinear graphics cut with a large distance)

1.) Feeding misaligned cuts:

  • a) Check the feed axis step; step = measured length * original step / actual length (set feed length).
  • b) Check if the feed axis synchronous belt tightening wheel and motor synchronous belt tightening wheel are loose.
  • c) Check if the roller mesh is loose and if there’s relative sliding between it and the feed axis or if there’s any jamming phenomenon.

2.) Non-feeding misaligned cuts:

  • a) Check if the large trolley motor or optical axis synchronous wheel is loose.
  • b) Check for lost step phenomena, which could be caused by too high processing speed, idle speed, or acceleration, poor motor wire contact, too low driver current, or a faulty driver or motor. Motor failure causing lost steps is relatively rare.

20. Long feed on the feeding machine?

If the feeding machine feeds too long, it is usually due to a malfunctioning photoelectric switch or incorrect light sensitivity of the photoelectric switch. The light sensitivity of the photoelectric switch can be adjusted.

When both upper and lower switches are illuminated simultaneously while the feeding machine is working, the feeding machine will start.

If the light sensitivity is too high, the machine will sense light even when the cutting material is blocking it, leading to overfeeding. In this case, adjust the sensitivity knob on the photoelectric switch’s wiring until the indicator light is on when the material is blocking it.

21. Coarse light spot on the galvanometer machine?

If the light intensity is not sufficient and the basic optical path and beam expander optical path have been adjusted well, and the dynamic focal length has been adjusted well, but the light spot is still coarse, you need to adjust the distance between the two lenses of the beam expander.

For our commonly used 3x beam expander, adjusting the output beam spot diameter to 13-14 mm generally gives good results. You can also adjust it according to the customer’s processing requirements.

22. Galvanometer machine with dynamic self-excitation?

For Shanghai Dynamics, adjust R103 and R28 to regulate self-excitation and howling. If the adjustment is ineffective, measure if the motor shaft is short-circuited with the machine casing. During the measurement, disconnect the motor’s power supply wire; otherwise, it will be continuously conductive.

If it still conducts after disconnecting the motor’s power supply wire, use an insulating film to isolate the motor and the machine casing, then adjust R103 and R28 again. If it’s still ineffective after addressing these issues, replace the components.

23. Incorrect marking or cutting size on marking and cutting machines?

For dynamic marking machines, incorrect size without moving the galvanometer lens up and down is generally due to changed or erroneous calibration parameter data. Recalibrating the galvanometer parameters can solve the issue.

For cutting machines, incorrect cutting sizes are usually caused by errors in the step distance and driver pulse count. Generally, determining the pulse count and calculating the step distance can solve the issue.

24. Cutting machine reverses the home position direction when powered on?

This type of malfunction is usually caused by a damaged home position switch. There are two types of home position switches: proximity switches and reed switches (magnetic control switches). The reverse direction of the home position is generally caused by a short circuit in the switch coil. Replacing the switch can solve the issue.

25. Cutting machine motor, motor driver, motor wire, and driver DC power supply switch fault?

The specific manifestations of such faults on the equipment are generally:

(1) The laser head does not move

(2) The laser head movement is abnormal, with pauses or jitter during operation In such cases, first observe and measure if the 48V or 42V DC switching power supply is working properly.

Insufficient or unstable supply voltage can cause these phenomena. If the switching power supply works normally, consider if the fault lies with the driver, motor, or motor wire.

To determine if the motor is faulty, first check if the motor itself rotates smoothly without power and with the motor wire disconnected from the driver. If the motor’s rotation is abnormal, it can be directly determined as a motor fault and replaced. If the motor runs normally, measure the motor coil.

For a six-wire motor, AC, A+, and A- form one coil group; AC and A+ and A- should be conductive. BC, B+, and B- form another coil group, with the same conductivity situation. If the conductivity is abnormal, it can be directly determined as a motor fault.

For Baishan and YAKO stepper drivers, if the DC power supply is normal and the motor wire is disconnected, and the driver’s indicator light is off, it can be directly determined as a driver fault. If you cannot directly determine the fault, you can use the replacement method for testing.

Motor wire faults are low probability issues in this type of failure. If both the motor and driver have been ruled out, the motor wire should be considered. Check for short circuits and open circuits, and use a multimeter for detailed continuity testing to troubleshoot.

26. Laser tube does not emit light?

  • Water level switch is broken.
  • High voltage line is disconnected.
  • Laser tube is cracked or burned.
  • Laser power supply is damaged.
  • No water circulation (including blocked water pipes and non-functioning water pump).
  • Water protection wire is disconnected or has poor contact.
  • No 220V input to the laser power supply.
  • No signal input to the laser power supply (broken signal wire or poor contact, damaged control relay, damaged circuit board, or poor soldering).
  • Two-axis card is broken.

27. Laser tube emits weak light?

  • Damaged laser tube or burned lens.
  • Laser tube light decay.
  • Damaged component in laser power supply.
  • Set laser power is too low.
  • Power regulator not set to maximum.

28. Can’t cut through?

  • Weak laser power.
  • Dirty or damaged laser lens.
  • Loose or improperly installed laser lens.
  • Incorrect focal length.
  • Beam misalignment.
  • Set laser power is too low.
  • Uneven working table.

29. Can’t start the machine?

  • Machine is not powered.
  • Air switch has tripped.
  • Emergency stop switch is pressed.
  • Start button is broken.
  • 24V transformer is damaged.
  • Contactor is damaged.
  • Broken wire.
  • Poor wire contact.

30. 24V switch power supply is broken; machine X, Y-axis cannot move?

  • 42V switch power supply is damaged.
  • Circuit board is damaged.
  • Issues with signal wire.

31. Machine X-axis or Y-axis does not move or is not powered?

  • No power supply to the driver.
  • Driver is damaged.
  • Poor contact or broken wire in the driver.
  • Motor plug is damaged or has poor contact.
  • Motor shaft is broken.
  • Transmission belt is loose or broken.
  • Issues with the driver signal wire.
  • Slider or transmission wheel is jammed.

32. Machine cutting misalignment

  • Belt is loose.
  • Machine wheel screws are loose.
  • Damaged machine driver.
  • Broken or damaged machine wire.
  • Damaged machine motor plug or poor contact.
  • Issues with the motor.

33. Cannot detect control card when connected to the machine?

  • Damaged card.
  • Card is not properly inserted.
  • Computer plug is damaged.
  • DPIO module driver is not installed.

34. Camera cutting is inaccurate

  • Calibration not performed.
  • Camera not properly adjusted.
  • Template not properly created.
  • Camera parameters not properly adjusted.
  • Parameters for creating the template not properly adjusted, such as recognition ratio, etc.

35. No light emission?

Short-circuit L and GND; if there is continuous light, it indicates that the laser power supply and laser tube have no issues, only signal issues. Short-circuit P and GND to determine if the water protection switch is normal. Short-circuit AIN and 5V; if there is continuous light, it indicates that the laser tube, laser power supply, and water protection are properly connected.

36. Computer and equipment cannot connect?

Update D13 driver; it could also be a USB cable issue.

37. When one axis can be pushed by hand during startup?

If the axis does not move during processing, it is generally a damaged driver; it could also be due to mechanical looseness in the transmission (e.g., if both axes do not move during processing and can be pushed by hand during startup, and the driver light is not on, it indicates that the 42V power supply is damaged).

38. Misalignment in one direction during cutting?

Increase driver current; it could also be a damaged driver or a motor wire issue.

39. Cutting has sawtooth pattern?

Slider issue.

40. Can’t cut through?

Laser tube may be weakened; beam path may be misaligned; it could also be the laser power supply.

41. Laser head hits the machine and cannot be limited?

The origin switch may be damaged, or it may not be set on the control panel.

42. Cutting doesn’t seal?

Adjust the belt and parameter settings.

43. Connected cutting machine has light during pre-adjustment but not during processing?

This is generally a control card issue.

44. Cutting dimensions are inconsistent?

Axis distance and pulse settings are not properly adjusted.

45. During work, a small section of a complete curve is skipped and not cut, also known as “skipping light”?

This issue is generally caused by the loosening of the large carriage slider during long-term high-speed operation. Simply readjust the sliders on both sides of the large carriage to resolve the problem.

46. During work, some areas on the same plate do not cut through while others do?

This issue is generally caused by beam misalignment or an uneven worktable. Adjust the beam path and level the worktable. Sometimes, beam misalignment is caused by rail deformation, in which case the rail needs to be adjusted.

47. During cutting, the ends sometimes cut into each other and sometimes separate?

This issue is generally due to loosening of the synchronous wheel fixing screws or problems with the motor wires. If there are issues with the motor wires, it is best to replace the entire group, not just one or two individual wires.

48. In summer, chiller is prone to high-temperature alarms?

This issue is generally caused by hot weather, poor heat dissipation in the chiller, or insufficient cooling capacity. DIY chillers do not typically have insufficient cooling capacity, and the problem is usually caused by dirty heat sinks or poor ventilation, resulting in alarms.

Small chillers may have insufficient cooling capacity; adjusting the temperature difference and increasing the alarm temperature can help resolve the issue.

49. Sometimes emits light and sometimes doesn’t?

First, check for unstable signals, including light emission signals and chiller signals. Then, check for any poor contacts in the potentiometer. Finally, inspect the power supply for any damage.

50. Upon startup, the machine doesn’t return to the origin, and can’t move.

This issue is generally due to the small carriage motor not being powered on. Under startup conditions, the laser head can be easily pushed by hand. The cause of the fault is usually a damaged 48V power supply or self-protection. Turn off the machine for ten minutes and turn it on again; if the problem persists, replace the 48V power supply.

51. The light from the laser tube becomes weak after cutting for a few minutes?

This issue generally has three possible causes: a problem with the power supply, a damaged laser tube, or an incorrect light emission frequency for the laser tube in the software.

52. Large carriage experiences violent shaking while moving?

This issue is usually caused by problems with the servo limit wires or limit switches. Replacing the wires or limit switches should resolve the issue.

53. Two laser heads move erratically?

This is generally due to a damaged control board, which produces incorrect signals.

54. Sometimes two patterns are required to be connected, but they don’t align when cut?

This issue is caused by the feeding drive axis and the small carriage aluminum profile not being parallel. The small carriage cannot be adjusted; the feeding drive axis must be adjusted to solve the problem.

55. Cutting has a sawtooth pattern?

Slider is loose or damaged, belt is loose, belt synchronous wheel is eccentric, curvature value is too high, corner speed is fast, lens is not tightened, etc.

56. Laser tube power is unstable; engraving is good at the beginning but varies in depth after a few days?

The laser tube and power supply are unstable.

57. No light emission?

Water level switch is leaking.

58. Laser power supply is arcing?

Welding area not properly connected, no silicone applied, high voltage wire touching metal.

59. Unable to cut through?

Beam misalignment, dirty or loose lens, incorrect focal length, laser tube power attenuation.

60. Machine won’t start?

Emergency stop, external power supply, contactor.

61. XY axis not moving?

Damaged driver, motor wire or connector issues, loose belt synchronous wheel, damaged 42V power supply.

62. Display panel not lighting up?

24V power supply is damaged, or the connection cable between the control board and display panel is damaged.

63. Poor cutting effect?

Yellow light around the cutting area is not correct, insufficient air blow.

64. Corner burning or dross occur while cutting right-angle parts?

When using a laser cutting machine to cut right-angle parts made of carbon steel or stainless steel, issues like corner burning or dross may arise due to various factors like cutting process and parameters.

Based on the advice of our company’s engineer with ten years of experience, there are three main solutions:

  1. R-Corner Transition: Design a small R-corner at the right-angle parts to make the cutting process transition naturally.
  2. Cooling Point Addition: Add a cooling point at the corner. Pause the laser and the gas when the cutting head reaches the corner, then continue cutting. Typically, the cooling point delay is set between 0.1 and 0.2 seconds.
  3. Power Curve Adjustment: For clients cutting thin stainless steel sheets at high speeds, you can adjust the power curve in the system to adapt to the speed change from high to low. Method: Within the operating system of the laser cutting machine, locate the “Process” settings. Go to “Real-Time Day Adjustment” and “Real-Time Frequency Adjustment,” then proceed to edit. You can select smooth speed and material thickness parameters; after editing, click “Confirm.”

Conclusion

In conclusion, this laser cutting machine troubleshooting guide is an invaluable resource for anyone looking to optimize their machine’s performance.

With solutions for a wide range of common issues, as well as tips for cutting a variety of materials, this guide is a must-read for both beginners and experienced professionals alike.

By following the step-by-step solutions outlined in this article, you’ll be able to quickly and efficiently resolve any issues you may encounter with your laser cutting machine.

Whether you’re dealing with sharp corners, poor accuracy, or abnormal noise, this guide has you covered.

So don’t let common problems hold you back – take advantage of the knowledge and expertise offered in this comprehensive resource and achieve the precise results you need.

Don't forget, sharing is caring! : )
Shane
Author

Shane

Founder of MachineMFG

As the founder of MachineMFG, I have dedicated over a decade of my career to the metalworking industry. My extensive experience has allowed me to become an expert in the fields of sheet metal fabrication, machining, mechanical engineering, and machine tools for metals. I am constantly thinking, reading, and writing about these subjects, constantly striving to stay at the forefront of my field. Let my knowledge and expertise be an asset to your business.

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