Laser Cutting Machine Troubleshooting: 63 Problems and Solutions

  1. Laser cutting effect is poor or can not cut through?

It may be because of the small power setting, the turned-down potentiometer, the biased light, the dirt lens, the reverse installed focusing lens, the focal length, the laser power, the attenuated laser tube power, the high water temperature, and the unstable voltage.

They are all determined according to the actual situation, from simple to deep.

  1. Can’t connect to the device

Check if the board driver is installed, whether the USB or network cable is plugged in, the USB or network cable is bad, the adapter board is broken, or the board is stuck.

  1. Returning to the origin when starting the machine, and moving in the opposite direction

The origin switch is broken.

  1. Cut shape distortion and cut overlap

Synchronous wheel screws are loose, the motor wire is broken, the motor is broken, the driver, voltage is abnormal, etc.

  1. The machine fails to start and trips in the open circuit of the room  

Check whether the emergency stop pops up, whether the external circuit is connected, and whether the internal circuit breaker is closed.

Do you hear a crackling sound when you turn on the machine?

If so, please check the main contactor and control transformer.

Whether it is a water protection leak that causes the laser power supply to short circuit (such as the JGHY12570 water protection position is installed on the side, which is just above the laser power supply), whether 107 water pump is short, and the indoor open circuit is too small.

  1. High voltage line sparks

This is really a tough problem, and I recommend putting a high-voltage insulation sleeve on the outside of the high-voltage line.

  1. The graphic size is too large or too small

Check whether the output graphic size is the same, the changes of Z-axis height position and make corrections of files, etc.

  1. The color in the middle of the image is not the same as the surrounding color

Adjust the focus factor, the W-axis focus, and etc.

  1. During the marking process, there is a phenomenon of damage and the spot becomes thicker.

Check the dynamics, DA boards, etc.

  1. Marking graphics position offset

The X-axis or Y-axis position of the galvanometer lens is shifted. Find the center point and adjust the X, Y axis position according to the actual shift direction.

  1. Random vibration of the X/Y axis of the start-up lens and abnormal noise of the dynamic motor

Replace ± 12 ± 15V switching power supply;

Replace ± 12 ± 28V switching power supply

  1. No lighting

Check whether the water return of the chiller is normal, whether the W axis position changes, whether the DC48V32A laser power is normal, and also check the laser tube, etc.

  1. No display on the boot display panel

Whether 5V/12V/24V switching power supply is normal, also remember to check the display panel, etc.

  1. The display panel does not return to its origin when the power is turned on.

Replace offline card

  1. Z axis is not feeding or motion is weak

It may be because of the Z-axis feed motor problems, driver problems, bearings, foreign material jams, etc.

  1. No light from the glass tube

The light output control of the glass tube mainly includes a laser tube, a laser power source, a water circulation system and a light output signal.

The light output signal includes a PWM light output signal, a water protection signal, and a door switch signal provided by the board.

Therefore, the laser tube does not emit light mainly from several aspects of the laser tube laser power supply water circulation system and the light output signal.

Generally, first directly observe whether the laser power supply is normally energized, then check whether there are abnormalities in the inner tube and outer tube of the laser tube, and whether the water circulation system is normal. If so, replace or adjust accordingly.

When the above aspects are normal, the issue of optical signals should be considered.

Generally, first test the laser tube and laser power by shorting the signal (shorting the laser power current 5v and AIN, shorting the water to protect P and GND, and controlling the L and GND with a lockless switch).

If the method can produce light normally, it means that the laser power supply of the laser tube is fault-free, and it is a signal problem such as water protection switch, relay, door switch, board pwm signal, etc., which can be eliminated in turn.

If this method does not produce light, it is a problem of the laser tube or the laser power supply.

In the case of poor judgment, the replacement method can be used to solve it.

  1. RF laser tube does not emit light

In the case that the water supply of the laser power is normally started, first check whether the laser power DC 48v is normal.

According to the conduction of pins 4 and 13 of the 25-pin laser tube insert, if it can be connected, it indicates that the water protection signal is normal, if it cannot be connected, the water protection can be checked.

When measuring the voltage of pins 7 and 20, do not follow the pre-adjustment or the DC voltage as about 4 to 5V at the beginning, follow the normal signal (low-level conduction) according to the pre-adjustment or start at 1 to 3v.

If the water, power, and these two signals are normal, it can generally be determined that the laser tube is faulty.

If the signal is not normal, it indicates a board problem or a circuit problem.

  1. The laser tube is connected incorrectly after the RF laser tube is replaced

In the case of the connector (the internal wire has no de-soldering short circuit), the power line (the left positive and negative electrodes are connected to the ground wire), the waterway connection is normal, and the chiller and equipment still cannot be connected normally after restarting, it is usually a problem of connecting circuit board of the 25-pin connector.

  1. Cutting dislocation of the cutting machine ( Repeating cut or the distance of the collinear graph is too large)

1.)Dislocation of feed cutting

First, the step distance of the feeding axis = the measured length * the original step distance / the true length (the set feeding length)

The second is to check whether the timing belt lock wheel of the feeding shaft and the motor timing belt lock wheel are loose.

The third is whether there is relative sliding between the loose rolling net and the feeding shaft, and whether there is any stuck.

2.)Dislocation of non-feed cutting

The first is that the cart motor or the optical axis synchronization wheel is loose.

The second is step missing.

The missing step may be caused by the processing speed, idling speed, or excessive acceleration setting.

It may also be caused by poor contact of the motor cable of the cart, the small driver current, the broken driver or  motor.

However, it is rare to occur the circumstance of step missing because the motor is broken.

  1. Feeder feeds for a long time

The long feeding of the feeder is usually that the photoelectric switch is broken or the photosensitivity of the photoelectric switch is incorrect.

The light sensor sensitivity of the photoelectric switch of the feeder can be adjusted up and down under the condition of long-closed.

At the same time, the feeder starts to work when the light is on.

When the light sensitivity is too sensitive, even if it is blocked by the cutting material, it will be sensed as passing light, so there’s a long feeding.

At this time, you have to adjust the sensitivity adjustment knob of the photoelectric switch wiring.

When it is adjusted to be covered by materials, the indicator of the photoelectric switch is on.

  1. Galvanometer spot is too thick

The light intensity is not enough. In the case that the basic optical path, the optical path of the over-expanding mirror and the dynamic focal length are well adjusted, but the light spot is still thick, at this time, the distance between the two lenses of the expander must be adjusted.

For our common triple beam expander, it is better to adjust the beam diameter of the beam expander to 13-14mm.

It can also be adjusted appropriately according to the processing requirements of customers.

  1. Galvanometer dynamic self-excitation

Dynamic howling, for dynamics, adjust R103 and R28 to adjust self-excitation and howling.

When the adjustment is invalid, it is necessary to measure whether the motor shaft is short-circuited to the casing, and disconnect the power cord of the motor during the measurement, otherwise it is long on.

If the power line of the motor is disconnected and the measurement is still conducted, the insulation between the motor and the case should be well insulated, then adjust R103 and R28.

After all the processing is completed, the R103 and R28 that are not adjusted can be replaced.

  1. Marking machine and cutting machine have incorrect marking or cutting dimensions

For dynamic marking machines, the dimensions are incorrect when the lens is not moved up and down.

Generally, the correction parameter data is changed or an error occurs.

Correcting the parameters of the galvanometer again can solve the problem of incorrect cutting size of the cutting machine.

It generally caused by the wrong step and the number of pulses of the driver and can be solved by determining the pulse number and calculating the step size.

  1. The cutting machine moves to the opposite direction of the origin when its turned on

This type of failure is usually caused by a broken origin switch.

There are two types of origin switches: proximity switches and mutual switches (magnetic switches).

The reverse direction of the origin is usually caused by the short circuit of the switch coil, replace it can solve the problem.

  1. The power supply of the cutting machine motor, motor driver, motor line and driver is faulty

The specific manifestations of such faults on the equipment are generally:

(1) Laser head does not move

(2) The laser head moves abnormally during operation, including stagnation, jitter, etc.

Generally this kind of situation occurs, first observe whether the 48v or 42v DC switching power supply is working properly.

This phenomenon can occur when the supply voltage is insufficient or unstable.

If the switching power supply works normally, it is necessary to consider whether it is a fault of the drive motor or motor line.

To judge the motor, first check whether the motor is running smoothly without powering on and the motor cable is disconnected from the driver.

If the motor rotates differently, it can be directly judged that the motor is faulty and can be replaced. If the motor itself is operating normally, you need to measure the motor coil.

For a six-wire motor, AC, A +, and A- are a set of coils, ac and a + are connected respectively, bc, b +, b- are a set of coils and the continuity is the same as above.

If the continuity is abnormal, it can be directly judged as a motor failure. For Baishan and YAKO stepping drives, in the case that the DC power supply is normal and the motor line is disconnected, if the indicator light of the driver is not on, it can be directly judged as a driver failure.

If it cannot be judged directly, it can be tested by replacement method.

In this kind of malfunction, the motor line fault is a small probability fault.

In the case where both the motor and the driver are excluded, the motor wire must be considered, you have to detect if there is a short circuit or an open circuit by using a multimeter to make detailed continuity measurements.

  1. Laser tube does not emit light

1) The water level switch is broken

2) Interruption of high-voltage lines

3) The laser tube is cracked or burned

4) The laser power is broken

5) No-water circulation (Including blocked water pipes and no-working pumps )

6) Water protection line is broken or poor contact

7) No 220V laser power

8) No signal from laser power source (The signal wire is broken or the contact is bad, the relay controlling the light output is broken, the board is broken, and the wire welding is not good)

9) The online two-axis is broken

  1. Weak light from the laser tube

1) The laser tube is burned out or the laser tube lens is burned out

2) The light attenuation of laser tube

3) A component of the laser power supply is burned out

4) The laser setting power is too low

5) The power regulator is not adjusted to the maximum

  1. Can not cut off

1) Low power of laser tube

2) The laser lens is dirty or damaged

3) The laser lens is not installed properly and is loose

4) Incorrect focal length

5) Light polarization

6) The setting power of the laser tube is too low

7) The platen is uneven

  1. Laser cutting machine can not be turned on

1) The machine is not powered on

2) The air switch has tripped

3) The emergency stop switch was pressed

4) The start button is broken

5) The 24V transformer is broken

6) The contactor is broken

7) The wire is broken

8) Poor electrical contact

  1. The X and Y axis cannot move

1) 42V switching power supply is broken

2) The board is broken

3) There is a problem with the signal line

  1. The X-axis or Y-axis does not move or is not charged

1) The drive is not powered

2) The drive is broken

3) The wire contact of the driver is bad or broken

4) The motor plug is broken or has poor contact

5) The motor shaft is broken

6) The drive shaft belt is loose or broken

7) There is a problem with the driver signal line

8) The slider is blocked or the transmission wheel is blocked

  1. Cutting position of the machine is shifting

1) The belt is loose

2) Machine wheel screws are loose

3) The machine driver is broken

4) Machine wire is broken or damaged

5) The machine motor plug is broken or not in good contact

6) There is something wrong with the motor

  1. No control card detected by online machine

1) The card is broken.

2) The card is not inserted properly

3) The plug-in of computer is broken

4) DPIO module driver is not installed 

  1. Inaccurate cutting with camera

1) No correction

2) The camera is not adjusted properly.

3) The template is not ready

4) Camera parameters are not adjusted properly

5) The parameters of making the template are not adjusted properly, such as acquaintance ratio, etc.

  1. No lighting

If shorting L and GND always light, it means that there’s no problem of the laser power supply and the laser tube, so, it must be the signal problem.

Shorting P and GND is used to judge whether the water protection switch is normal. If shorting AIN and 5V light up for a long time, this shows that laser power water protection connection of the laser tube is intact.

  1. Computer and device cannot be connected

Update D13 driver or maybe USB cable

  1. Is it possible to push by hand when a shaft is turned on?

If the shaft does not move during processing, the driver is usually broken, or the transmission mechanism may be loose. (If both axes are not moving during processing, they can also be pushed by hand when the machine is turned on.

The driver light is also off, indicating that the 42V power supply is broken)

  1. It will jump in one direction when cutting

Increase the driver current.

It is also possible that the drive is broken or the motor wire is defective.

  1. Theres sawtooth when cutting

Slider problem

  1. The material can not be cut off

The laser tube may be weak, the optical path may be deviated, or it may be a problem with the laser power.

  1. The laser head collides with the machine

The origin switch is broken, or may be no setting on the panel.

  1. Cut without sealing

Adjust the belt and parameter settings

  1. Oneline cutting machine has the light when presetting, no light when processing

Control card issues

  1. Inconsistent cutting size

Wheelbase and pulse are not adjusted well

  1. When working, a complete curve has a small distance to jump over without cutting, also known as jumping light

This problem is generally caused by the looseness of the carriage slider under the condition of long-term high-speed operation.

Just readjust the sliders on both sides of the cart and the problem can be solved.

  1. When working, some places can be cut off and some places can not

This kind of problem is usually caused by light deviation or uneven work surface, which requires dimming or adjusting the platform surface.

Sometimes the light deviation is caused by the deformation of the guide rail. At this time, the guide rail needs to be adjusted.

  1. When cutting, the two ends sometimes cut into each other, sometimes separates

This problem is generally caused by loosening of the fixing screws of the synchronous wheel or a problem with the motor cable. If there is a problem with the motor cable, it is best to replace all of them, not just one or two of them.

  1. Water chiller is easy to alarm in summer

This problem is usually caused by the hot weather in summer, poor cooling of the chiller or insufficient cooling capacity.

Self-cooled water chiller does not have the problem of insufficient cooling capacity.

Generally, it is because the heat sink is too dirty and the ventilation is not good enough to cause an alarm.

Small chillers generally have insufficient cooling capacity.

You can increase the temperature difference and raise the alarm temperature appropriately to solve the problem.

  1. Sometimes lights, sometimes doesnt light

First, observe the signal stability, including the light signal and the chiller signal, and then see if the potentiometer has a bad contact, and finally check whether the power supply is broken.

  1. The trolley does not return to the origin and cannot be moved when starting

This problem is generally because the car motor is not powered on, and the laser head can be easily pushed by hand when the car is turned on.

The reason for the failure is that the 48V switching power supply is broken or self-protected.

You can turn it off for ten minutes and then turn it on again. If the trolley still doesn’t move, you need to change the 48V switching power supply.

  1. For a few minutes cutting, the light from the laser tube becomes very weak

There are generally three possibilities for this problem: there is a problem with the power supply, the laser tube is broken, or the output frequency of the laser tube in the software is incorrect.

  1. The machine often shakes violently when it is moving

This problem is generally caused by the servo limit line or the limiting displacement, which can be solved by changing the line or the limiting displacement.

  1. Two laser heads move randomly

Generally it is because the board is broken and the signal given is incorrect.

  1. Sometimes it is required that two graphics can be connected, but they cannot be connected when cut out.

This problem is caused by the non-parallelism of the feed active shaft and the trolley aluminum pass.

The trolley cannot be adjusted, and the problem can only be solved by adjusting the feed active shaft.

  1. Sawtooth occurs when cutting

The unsealed slider is loose, the belt is loose, the belt timing wheel is eccentric, the curvature value is too large, the corner speed is fast, and the lens is not tightened …

  1. Laser tube power is unstable ( the carving is very good at the beginning, but engraving varies in depth after a few days)

Laser tube and power supply are unstable

  1. Theres no light

The water level switch leaks

  1. Laser power sparks

The welding place is not connected properly, it is not coated with silicone or the high-voltage line hits the iron.

  1. The material can not be cut off

Light deviation, dirty or loose lens, wrong focal length, weak laser tube power.

  1. The machine does not work when turned on

Possible problems with emergency stop, external power supply, and the contactor.

  1. XY axis does not move

It may because the driver is broken, the motor wire connector is broken, the belt timing wheel is loose, or the 42V switching power supply is broken.

  1. The display panel does not light up

The 24V power supply is broken, the board and the display panel connection cable is broken.

  1. Cutting effect is not good

The surrounding yellow light is not strong when cutting, and the blowing is weak.

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20 thoughts on “Laser Cutting Machine Troubleshooting: 63 Problems and Solutions”

  1. Seth Patrick brown

    Hi im new at using a cnc lazer but i can operate it well its just that when the lazer is stopped or stops during a cut or even when i want to jump to a specific part in my nest. The restart start function is not working properly and i am inexperienced at using n variables and the guide i have for n variables. I am still trying to understand how to use it. Please help me

  2. Why does my chiller alarm keep coming o. Everytime I try to start laser up saying overload fan condenser 1005 chiller code

    1. You can ask system manufacturers or laser cutting machine manufacturers for help. You know, different manufacturers use different systems.

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