CNC Lathe Tools: Types and How to Choose

CNC lathes play an increasingly important role in the manufacturing industry.

As an important part that can affect the quality of workpieces in turning, lathe tools need to adapt to the characteristics of high efficiency, high speed and high automation.

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This article will introduce CNC lathe tools from two aspects: what are the types of CNC lathe tools and how to choose the appropriate tools.

With the wide application of numerical control lathe in production practice, the formation of quantitative production line and numerical control programming have become one of the key problems in numerical control processing.

In the process of NC programming, it is necessary to select tools and determine cutting parameters in real time under the condition of human-computer interaction.

Therefore, programmers must be familiar with the selection method of cutting tools and the determination principle of cutting parameters, so as to ensure the processing quality and processing efficiency of parts, give full play to the advantages of CNC lathes, and improve the economic efficiency and production level of enterprises.

Types of NC lathe tools

CNC lathes have higher and higher requirements on the stability, durability and easy replacement of tools.

In recent years, CNC machine clamp indexable tools have been widely used, and they have been widely used in the machining process, accounting for a large proportion in the number.

What are the types of NC lathe tools?

According to the tool structure, it can be divided into three types: integral type, inlay type and special type.

It can be divided into four categories according to the different materials for manufacturing tools: diamond tools, high-speed steel tools, cemented carbide tools and other material tools (such as ceramic tools).

According to the number of blades, they are classified as single blade force tools and multi blade tools.

Single edge tools refer to tools with only one main cutting edge, while multi edge tools refer to tools with more than two (including two) main cutting edges.

Compared with the tools used on the ordinary lathe, the CNC tools have many different requirements, which mainly have the following characteristics: high accuracy, good interchangeability, high life, good rigidity (especially for rough machining tools), convenient for rapid tool change, stable cutting performance, small vibration resistance and thermal deformation, easy to adjust the size of the tool to reduce the adjustment time of tool change, and the tool should be able to reliably break chips or iron chips.

Conducive to chip removal: serialization and standardization to facilitate programming and tool management.

Selection of CNC lathe tools

The tool selection is carried out in the human-machine interaction state in the CNC machining process.

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The programmer can correctly select tools and tool holders according to the processing capacity, processing procedures, performance of workpiece materials, cutting parameters and other factors of the lathe.

The general principle of tool selection is: good rigidity, high durability and accuracy, easy installation and adjustment.

On the premise of meeting the processing requirements, the shorter tool shank shall be selected as far as possible to improve the rigidity of tool processing.

What are the types of CNC lathe tools?

In the processing process of the economical numerical control lathe, the grinding, measurement and replacement of the tool are carried out manually, and the auxiliary time is long.

Therefore, it is necessary to reasonably arrange the arrangement sequence of tools to reduce the auxiliary machining time.

Generally, the following principles shall be followed: reduce the number of tools as much as possible.

After a tool is clamped, all machining steps it can perform shall be completed: the tools for rough and finish machining shall be used separately.

Even if the tools are of the same size and specification, the surface finish machining shall be carried out first, and then the surface finish machining of the workpiece shall be carried out.

When selecting the tool, the size of the tool should be compatible with the surface size of the workpiece to be processed.

When machining free-form surfaces, since the end cutting speed of the ball head tool is zero, in order to ensure the machining accuracy, the turning line spacing generally adopts the top dense distance, so the ball head is often used for surface finishing.

The flat head cutter is superior to the ball head cutter in surface processing quality and cutting efficiency.

Therefore, the flat head cutter should be preferentially selected as long as no cutting is guaranteed, whether it is rough machining or finish machining of curved surfaces.

In addition, the durability and accuracy of the tool have a great relationship with the price of the tool.

It should be noted that in most cases, although the selection of a good tool increases the cost of the tool, the overall processing cost is reduced through the improvement of processing quality and processing efficiency.

Through the introduction of NC lathe tools in this paper, we not only understand that the types of NC lathe tools can be classified from the tool structure, manufacturing tool materials and the number of cutting edges, but also understand that the selection of tools is carried out in the human-machine interaction state in the NC machining process.

As the executor of CNC lathe processing, the tool plays a particularly important role.

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